The Mandaean Human Rights Group is a self organized group dedicated for the help and protection of follow Mandaeans in Iraq and Iran given the situation in those two countries. The Human Rights Group watches, investigates and exposes human rights violations against Mandaeans. We have volunteers in the United States, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, Europe and Iraq. Our model in our work is the United Nation’s Human Rights Declaration of 1948. The MHRG is a non profit organization registered at Companies House, UK 6271157. It is a member of the Mandaean Associations Union.

Acknowledgment

We gratefully acknowledge the dedicated help and advice of many organizations, without which this work would not have been completed. Numbered among them for this edition are:The Mandaean Associations Union,The Spiritual Mandaean Council – Baghdad, Iraq,The Mandaean General Assembly – Baghdad, Iraq,The Mandaean Human Rights Association- Baghdad, Iraq,The Mandaean Society in Jordan,The Mandaean Society in Syria,The Mandaean Society in Australia, and the Scientific Mandaean Society in Iran.

 

Content:

Demography ———————————————————————————–P 4

Short History of the Sabian Mandaeans ———————————————–P 4

Sabian Mandaeans after the fall of Saddam Hussain’s regime. ——————P 6

The Mandaean refugees in the middle Countries, Syria and Jordan———–P 9

What is the solution? ———————————————————————–P 10

Conclusion ————————————————————————————–P 12

Appendix:

Examples of Atrocities against the Sabian Mandaeans since 2003————-P 13

List of the murdered Sabian Mandaeans———————————————- P 13

List of the kidnapped Sabian Mandaeans———————————————-P 18

Threats and Assaults————————————————————————P 27

Rape———————————————————————————————-P 34

Conversion to Islam by Force————————————————————-P 35

Forced displacement from Al-Ramady Area to Syria——————————–P 36

Forced displacement from Al-Ramady Area to Jordan—————————–P 36

Other incidence ——————————————————————————P 37

Photo evidence of some of the victims————————————————P 39

 

The Sabian-Mandaean religion is one of the oldest monotheistic religions in the Middle East. It is independent of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. It follows the teachings of John the Baptist; baptism being its central ritual. Like most religions it emphasizes marriage, family, and peaceful coexistence with other groups. Mandaeans (Sabians or Sub’ba, in spoken Arabic) are the people who believe in this religion. One is born a Mandaean; the group accepts no converts. Well before the Islamic era and from early Christianity, Mandaeans have lived in Southern Iraq and Southern Iran. In Iraq, after WWI, they migrated to large cities such as Basra and Baghdad. Like Hebrews and Copts, Mandaeans are both a religious and ethnic minority they are part of an endogenous Aramaic people. The word Mandaean refers to their distinct Aramaic language, which is still spoken by Iranian Mandaeans. In Iraq on the other hand, the Mandaean language survives only in liturgy.

Demography

Although it is difficult to estimate, the Mandaeans are around sixty thousands at the present time. Their decreased numbers are due to continued persecution and forced mass conversions as well as relocation and assimilation. Currently, they live in large cities such as Baghdad, Umara and Basra; few remain in other Iraqi cities like Nasiriya and southern Iranian cities like Ahwaz. During the past decade, and especially the past three years, thousands have escaped Iraq and Iran, choosing self-exile and immigration over death and persecution. There are about 15,000 Mandaean in different parts of Europe, 1500 in the United States, 1000 in Canada and about 4000 in Australia. There is also a large refugee population in various other countries: 2100 families in Syria, 500 families in Jordan, 50 individuals in Yemen and smaller numbers in Thailand, Mali, Egypt, Lebanon and Libya.

Short History of the Sabian Mandaeans

It is difficult to chart the origins and history of the Mandaean people because their literature does not deal with these topics. Presently only one Mandaean text has emerged which refers, but in a very confused manner, to their history. It is the “Diwan of the great Revelation, called ‘Inner Haran’” or Haran Gawaita.

In Haran Gawaita there is a description of the Nasoraeans escaping from persecution and staying in the “Median Hills” under the rule of King Ardban. King Ardban has been identified with the Parthian King Artaban III, IV or V. This description shows how the Mandaean community, or part of it, penetrated into the Iranian territory of that time, that is during the period of the later Parthian kings, in the first or second centuries A. D. This same text describes how a Mandaean community was established in Mesopotamia and discusses its further history under the Sassanian rulers.

The emigration of the early Mandaean community from the Jordan valley in Palestine into eastern territories, brought about because of conflicts with the locals, must have taken place during the second century A.D. at the latest, because several Mesopotamian and Parthian elements presuose a fairly lengthy stay in these regions. The emigrants went first to Haran, and the Median hills, and then entered the southern provinces of Mesopotamia.

Haran Gawaita attests to the foundation of a community in Baghdad, i.e. in Mesopotamia, and the aointment of Mandaean governors in this region. In contrast to the Parthian rulers, under whom the Mandaeans obviously prospered, relations with the Sassanians were bad. The same scroll refers to considerable reduction in the number of the Mandaean Mandis (Worship Houses) at that time. It is also clear from the inscription of the Zoroastrian high priest Kartar that those practicing non-Iranian religions – and the Mandaeans were among these – were persecuted during the reign of King Shahpur I.

With the rise of Islam there came renewed oression. In spite of the mention of the Sabians as a “people of the book” in the Qur’an, Mandaeans were hardly ever tolerated. Thus, the afflicted community retired more and more into the inaccessible marshes of southern Iraq and the river districts of Khuzestan, where the Mandaeans are even now to be found.

During this journey in history, Mandaeans were faced with several massacres and genocide attempts. Examples of which are in:

  • The 14th century in Umara, Iraq by the hands of The Sultan Muhsin Ben Mahdi and his son Fiadh the ruler of Shushter. Thousands of Mandaeans were killed [1].
  • The massacre of 1782 in South Iran and east Iraq when the Muslim rulers wanted the Mandaean books and the Mandaeans refused to give it in fear of destruction. Leaders of the community where tortured and killed and the rest had to escape [2].
  • The massacres of Muhamra 1837 [3]
  • The massacre of Suk Al-Shiuk 1839 [4]
  • The Massacre of 1870 in Shuster By the hands Nassir Al-Deen Shah the ruler of Iran [5]

In the beginning of the twentieth century, the Mandaeans returned to the large cities (Baghdad and Basra), and found opportunities for education and social improvement.

After the First World War and with the rise of Turkish nationalism, Arab nationalism took precedent over religion and the Arab Muslims fought against the Muslim Ottoman Empire. A new phase of persecution aeared where the ethnic identity of minorities in the Arabic Islamic rule had to dissolve in the pan Arab chauvinistic identity. This included the Mandaeans, Christians, Kurds and all other ethnicities. The Mandaeans lost their language (Mandaean Aramaic), distinctive dress and heritage to Arabic culture. This arabization process, especially in 1950 to 1960’s, adversely affected their religion [6]. Mandaeans were forced to deny certain Mandaean mandates. For instance as Mandaean children attended schools they are required to cut their hair, this is in direct violation to Mandaean rules. Since the sons of priests are barred from the priesthood if they cut their hair, this forced act have dwindled the pool of acceptable alicants. In addition they were drafted by force in the armed forces again against their religious mandate which prohibit carrying guns [7].

During the Baath and Saddam era the Mandaeans were under extreme pressure. The dictatorship affected the Iraqi society over the last several decades in a brutal way. This dictatorship held an iron grip over all Iraqis and stained the recent history with terror and the blood of the innocent. The Mandaeans took their share of misery and pain in the suffering that occurred. Several hundred Mandaeans died during Saddam rule for trying to express their thoughts in public. Hundreds of their young men and women were killed, condemned to horrible tortures, or simply vanished. Hundreds more were killed during the Iraq-Iran war under the forced drafting rules. This make s substantial portion of young male population. They were forced to go against their religious doctrine of not carrying weapons and never shedding blood, even in self-defence [8].

The concept of freedom in the Baath regime, especially religious freedom, was directly correlated with the personal favour demanded of Saddam Hussein and the regime [9]. The Mandaeans were no different; they suffered politically, economically, socially, and religiously from the persecution that has occurred against them. The Mandaeans have endured severe discrimination in employment, education, the legal system, and were subjected to forced military service and social shunning. This forced over 15,000 of the Mandaeans to flee from Iraq during that period. This represents a major percentage of the total numbers of the Mandaeans in Iraq, making them the most affected minority. Also, interference of authorities in religious matters and decisions led lots of the Mandaean priests to leave Iraq.

During the last decade and before the fall of Saddam regime, there was a surge in Islamic fundamentalist ideology both in the Sunni and Shia school of thoughts resulting from many factors out of the scope of this report. These extreme Islamic views carry, among other things, an extreme view of how Muslims should deal with other religions like Christianity, Judaism and Mandaeism. Un-acceptance and forced conversion is the only solution that these ideologies would accept. The followers of these sects used all the means available to them including money, threats and intimidation to convert other religious minority members like Mandaeans to Islam. These tactics were successful with a lot of Mandaean families in areas like in Faluja and Ramadi and some areas of Baghdad. The use of threats, intimidation, brain washing of children, and kidnapping of girls forced a lot of Mandaean families to surrender completely and accept their fate. During that period many Mandaeans were killed for their faith only [10].


Sabian Mandaeans after the fall of Saddam Hussein’s regime.

Major changes have taken place in Iraq since the fall of Saddam Hussein. The situation has deteriorated further since our previous report in March 2007 [11]. Chaos and sectarian violence are continuing. The sectarian Muslim identity among Iraqis has preceded the national identity [12]. Sunni and Shia death squads are roaming the streets of Baghdad and other cities of Iraq. These death squads are killing based on the last name and religion presented on Iraqi ID [13]. Mandaeans and other Iraqi minorities are targeted by both sides [14]. Many insurgencies involving a number of communities and organizations are struggling for power inside Iraq at the moment. The conflicts have become internalized between Iraqis as the polarization of sectarian and ethnic identities reached ever deeper into Iraqi society and has caused the breakdown of social cohesion. This was recognised in a Chatham House Report in May 2007, titled “Accepting Realities in Iraq” [15] [16]

Sectarian and political violence has escalated throughout the year. According to Amnesty International’s report on Sectarian violence (23rd May 2007) [17], members of different armed groups, including Ba’Athists, Sunni and Shi’a extremists and others, targeted civilians for deliberate killings, abductions and other abuses.

The level of casualties sustained as a result of attacks by insurgency groups, armed militia and criminal gangs remains difficult to gauge, given the constraints imposed by the security situation [18]. The situation of minority communities in Iraq deteriorated significantly since mid April 2006 in many parts of the country.” In addition it was reported that several fatwa’s was issued against the Mandaeans. [19]

According to the USCIRF May 2007 Annual Report: The Commission is also concerned about the grave conditions affecting non-Muslims in Iraq, including ChaldoAssyrian Christians, Yazidis, Sabean- Mandaeans, and other minority religious communities. These groups face widespread violence from Sunni insurgents and foreign jihadis, and they also suffer pervasive discrimination and marginalization at the hands of the national government, regional government, and Para-state militias, including those in Kurdish areas. As a result, non-Muslims are fleeing the country in large numbers. The commission continues to monitor conditions for Iraqi refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), particularly those minority groups experiencing a degree of religious intolerance and persecution vastly disproportionate to their numbers. Together with the rising tide of sectarian violence, conditions for religious minorities require heightened attention and more effective action by the U.S. government. [20]

Since Mandaeans are pacifists and conscientious objectors by doctrine they cannot defend themselves from this violence by carrying arms. The UNHCR guidance note, October 2005, noted that “Unlike most Iraqis, the Mandaeans do not belong to tribal groupings. In the past, Mandaeans were able to negotiate protection agreements with tribes by paying considerable sums of money. However, due to the present situation of general insecurity in Iraq, Mandaeans can no longer count on this type of arrangement and are therefore extremely vulnerable.” In addition Mandaeans do not have their own identified geographical area like other religious and ethnic minorities, but are scattered around the country. As a result it is extremely difficult to move them to one particular location as part of a protection scheme. They have therefore fled the country in large numbers to save their lives, making them the most genuine refugees. [21]

The Aendix attached shows the increase in the number of atrocities against the Mandaeans from January 2007 to February 2008. There were 42 killings, 46 kidnappings, 10 reported threats and 21 attacks reported. This is obviously a large proportion out of the aroximately 4,000 Mandaeans left in Iraq. The sectarian cleansing of Baghdad by both Sunni and Shia groups proceeded despite a major US troop deployment aimed in part at stoing it [22] It was noticed that some families requested MHRG not to publish the names of some of the killed and/or kidnapped. It was also noticed that some killings were not for money or ransom but to terrorize the families. A substantial number of the victims were women and children. In many cases the families were forced to sell everything to pay off the ransom, as they understood that the threats were quite serious. Many of the families were threatened to leave the country or else to be killed. Despite the ransom being paid in some cases the killing was nevertheless carried out. Many of the families were internally displaced when it was too dangerous for them to flee the country.

Mandaeans are being targeted and killed primarily for their beliefs and secondly for their position in the community as professionals and jewellers. The aendix in this report will also show the numbers of Mandaeans killed, kidnapped or attacked since 2003 .Several religious clergy have been assassinated. Al-Halali Raad Mutar Falih was machine gunned in his house in Sewara in front of his family. Al-Halali Talib Salman Arabi in the Ur section of Baghdad was killed at his doorstep in front all his family and neighbours.

Some of the Mandaean treasures like the Holly Ginza written on lead plates more than a thousand years old were looted, melted and some were sold in the international markets for antiques. It is the Mandaean identity and culture that is specifically targeted by these terrorist, not just the individuals.

Forced conversions are happening at an alarming degree. Boys are being kidnapped, forcefully circumcised (a major sin in Mandaean religion) and forcibly converted to Islam (case has been shown to representative of Amnesty International during their visit to Amman in 2006), Amnesty International annual report. 23rd May 2007 [23]. Young girls have been kidnapped, raped, or forced to marry Muslims. Families receive threats demanding that they either convert or pay “Jizia,” (a ransom tax paid by non-Muslims). Often these threats come in the form of phone calls, letters, or through direct contact. All these cases and other similar cases together with updates have been presented to the UNHCR in Jordan and detailed accounts presented to UNHCR in Geneva in may 2006.

Confiscation of property is also becoming a common, unpunished practice. Mandaean houses are being taken in areas of Baghdad like Dora, Adhamia, and Sidia, in addition to other cities like Basra and Baquba. As they flee the area, their property is immediately occupied and often, police and neighbours are unwilling to provide assistance. In one instance, a Mandaean family in the Adamia region of Baghdad went to the police to register the confiscation of their house. They received assistance from neither the police nor the neighbours. Their case was immediately dismissed, and they later received a death threat advising them to either leave Baghdad or face the consequences. Mandaean houses of worship were also confiscated. The Mandi (a Mandaean House of worship) in Qalaa Salih, Umara and the Mandi in Baquba were both taken by armed militia. In addition, a Mandaean community centre in Baghdad and Mandaean land in Basra were all forcefully taken without compensation. Systematic destruction of Mandaean heritage like artefacts, scriptures and Holly books is continuing (Appendix).

More than 80% of the Mandaean community has been displaced outside Iraq. The Mandaean community in Iraq has dwindled from more than 60 thousand in the early 1990s to between 4-5 thousands today [24]. Most have escaped to Syria and Jordon and others have also fled to Yemen and other countries. Some are very desperate to reach western democracies and fell victims to human trafficking, spent all their saving and endured more difficulties in other countries. Currently there are 10 Mandaean refugees jailed in Thailand because of being caught while trying to reach a safe refuge

Mandaeans who are unable to leave Iraq are internally displaced moving to different cities inside the country or moving together in houses in order to gain a sense of security and protection. Some have tried to move to Kurdistan, however there is no system of support for refugees and the authorities are not prepared to accept refugees. With recent regulations it has become even more difficult to enter the area except for the well off section and the highly educated. In addition Mandaeans fear that religious persecution may be carried out by Islamic extremists whilst in Kurdistan.

Employment in Iraq is now related to political, sectarian and ethnic affiliation rather than qualifications. The ministries are divided among the Shia, Sunni, and Kurdish factions and they deny all other religious and ethnic minorities any chances of employment. Large numbers of Mandaeans are gold smiths and silver smiths and cannot go to work as they are easy victims. Many of their businesses have been confiscated [25].

Mandaeans have tried to express their concerns through the political process in Iraq. However, they have no voice in the parliament and no direct solid connection to any of the effective officials. Contacts with officials, religious leaders, and political party leaders have resulted in empty promises and no end to any of the above atrocities. Many of Iraq’s most powerful and well-positioned leaders are not always working toward national interests but sectarian interests [26]. The police force is corrupt, often helping attackers, and has little to no role in protecting minorities [27].

The situation of the Mandaean refugees in the middle countries (where asylum seekers wait for arovals and resettlement)

Mandaeans are escaping mainly to Syria and Jordan. It is rather important to point out that the Mandaean situation is different from other minorities as they do not have any identified geographical area within Iraq to go to. They have no choice other than to leave Iraq Moreover Mandaeans are virtually unknown outside Iraq with no international establishments that look after them like other religious sects.

There are about 2100 families in Syria, mostly in the Germanha area of Damascus, and about 500 in Jordan, mostly in Amman. The conditions of the refugees differ only slightly between the two countries.

These countries are neither ready nor able to deal with a large influx of refugees by their own resources. They are not refugee accepting countries. Asylum seekers and refugees are left to their own resources without any specific legal, social, medical, educational or financial support. At the border, they are given temporary stay, and after that time, they become illegal. These regulations are changeable which does not provide security. Illegal residents are not allowed to work and have no legal or social support from the governments, and they are under the threat of deportation if they have an encounter with the police, even as victims. This leaves the door wide open for all sorts of abuse.

Abuse of refugees by employers is widespread. Refugees are forced to work for long hours and are either paid with meals or are denied compensation and are constantly threatened with deportation if their case reaches police. Many families have been there for years and used all of their savings. They therefore end up accepting any available employment.

Women and children are falling prey to all sorts of abuse. Pressures of illegal employment, deportation, and even hunger forces women in the pit of sexual abuse. Some girls are being lured into the sex trade and some are kidnapped and married by sex traders to be sold in other countries as sex labourers. Such cases are known but will not be reported due to social stigma in the Middle East communities.

Children are not allowed to enter the education system easily in both countries though some changes in the regulations haened recently. Private education is very expensive. Most of the parents cannot afford to put their children in schools and thus many are left without education. Children are forced to work to help their parents. Some factories take advantage of the government policies regarding refugees and employ children for nominal fees and long hours. Such cases are being reported on personal level but never reach the regulatory bodies or the police.

Most refugees cannot afford the expensive health care systems in both Syria and Jordan. There is no system for providing proper health care for the refugees. Few humanitarian organizations in Amman provide some health care for free but they do not have medications to treat many acute illnesses much less chronic ones. Most malignancies are diagnosed late, patients are not treated, and some are left to die. To add insult to injury, most families have no money to bury their dead. Some families started to beg in mosques and churches and some even search the dumpsters for food. Psychological problems including depression and posttraumatic stress syndromes are widespread among both adults and children.

All the listed above increased more last year as the years of suffering endured by them is continuing and their resources are dwindling. It was also noticed that a few kidnappings occurred in these countries. Threats from gangs linked to Iraqi gangs aeared. Some Iraqi kidnappers were identified by their victims and were reported to the local police; however, because the crimes haened in Iraq the criminals were freely still roaming and threatening the Mandaeans.

Most Mandaeans have presented their cases to the UNHCR offices in Amman and Syria. They are usually granted temporary protection cards, but those cards have no value with the authorities in both countries. More than a thousand cases have been processed for resettlement. The UNHCR regional offices in Jordan and Syria had limited number of staff and resources until last year [28]. They were not able to deal with large numbers of refugees. However the UNHCR did expand their offices last year but still need more resources and help to deal with hundreds of thousands of refugees and help find proper solution to their dilemma.

Conditions in Jordan and Syria are becoming inhumane. Turning a blind eye or remaining silent has ceased to be acceptable options for the international community. In Jordan many families who escaped before 2006 were not recommended for resettlement by the UNHCR, despite their individual valid cases and their far prolonged suffering. In Syria the UNHCR recommended a limited number of families for resettlement despite belonging to the vulnerable groups such as single mothers, elderly, the very ill and families of victims of murder.

On March 8th 2008 Mr. Muhanad Safaa Al-Dehaisi was killed in AlBaya area in Baghdad less that twenty four hours after his return to Baghdad . He was in Jordan as a refugee and was forced to return for lack of reseorses. The situation is getting worse and a solution has to be found urgently.

We urge the UNHCR to look at the most vulnerable of the minorities. The Mandaeans don’t receive particular support from any governmental or non-governmental agencies. Other Iraqi refugees have resources of financial support from countries and organizations affiliated to their faiths.

There are Mandaean communities in USA, Australia and Sweden and we hope that the rest of the resettled refugees will follow their kind (community) to be able to continue their faith freely in a safe place.

There are 50 Mandaeans who escaped to Yemen even before the fall of Saddam and have been there for more than five years. Their cases where processed by the UNHCR and presented to the United States for resettlement, but the process was put on hold after 9/11. They are under tremendous stress from the community around them who do not know, understand, or accept the Mandaean religion. As their identity becomes known to the locals they are being deprived even of the meagre resources they have gained over the last 5 years. Employment is denied, women are sexually harassed, and they face religious persecution. There are no facilities or running water for the Mandaeans to practice their faith. If such facilities were provided, many families would not want to use them because they would expose themselves to much danger. In the community, young Mandaean women are being pressured to marry Muslim men.

There are several Mandaean families who were victims of human trafficking and ended up in Thailand without support or legal identity. We hope that the Thailand government will be more sensitive to their situation, release them from detention and allow them to have a safe refuge.

What is the solution?

Under the current situation in Iraq it is not safe for the Mandaean refugees to return. The UNHCR does not believe that the time has come to promote, organize or encourage returns. Moreover, there is no particular safe area within Iraq for the Mandaeans to return to. In a letter dated 23rd of October 2006 from the European Centre for Kurdish studies addressed to the highest court authority in Düsseldorf (Germany) it was mentioned that it is not possible for Mandaeans to establish presence in northern Iraq due to lack of job opportunities, language difficulties and continued religious harassment by Kurdish extremists.

The Mandaeans’ continued presence as refugees in Syria and Jordan is fraught with difficulties. Mandaeans are currently living in an uncertain future. The only durable solution to their plight is to be offered resettlement in a safe third country such as the US, Australia or a European country. To save their culture and religion from extinction their preferable option will be to relocate as a group together. Otherwise their ancient culture, tradition, religion and language threaten to disappear forever.

The UNHCR launched an aeal document (Jan 8th 2008) to fund its operations for 2008 on behalf of Iraqi refuges and stresses that UNHCR “cannot at this time promote or encourage the return of Iraqi refugees, citing continuing security concerns and other factors” [29].

However, it is fare to say that the safety situation is improving in some areas in Iraq for certain refugee population. For the Mandaean refugees, however, return could mean a death sentence.

The international community and especially the USA, the UK, Australia, the EU countries, UNHCR and all other NGO’s should act to prevent this humanitarian disaster from continuing. One of the oldest and most peaceful communities in the Middle East is being annihilated under the eyes of the international community [30].

The U.N declaration for the protection of indigenous, ethnic and religious minorities is compatible with the situation of the Mandaeans and should be applied. Furthermore, the International law for the prevention of genocide should be considered [31]

Because of the role and responsibility of the United States in Iraq, and the commitments that the Coalition governments have made before and after the invasion of Iraq, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia have special obligations least of which is morally to step up and save the Mandaeans and other religious minorities in Iraq [32]. These governments should acknowledge that Mandaeans will not be safe from persecution in Iraq in any eventuality and should therefore provide Mandaeans with permanent protection by accepting them for resettlement.

The United States of America especially has obligations to save the Mandaeans and other religious minorities in Iraq. The United States Government should give the Mandaeans a P2 visa without delay as an extremely endangered religious minority that is at the verge of extinction due to religious persecution.

The USA government should start speeding up its processing of the current referred cases from UNHCR and stand up for its obligations to admit 12000 refugees this year. These obligations were not met last year.

The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom has already urged Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs Mrs. Dobriansky to create new or expand existing options for allowing members of Iraq’s Chaldeo-Assyrian and Sabean Mandaean religious minority communities to access the U.S. refugee program, and to urge UNHCR to resume full refugee status determinations for all Iraqi asylum seekers and assess all claims without delay [33].

The international community should look seriously in helping the Mandaean refugees to resettle in one country which permits religious freedom and practices and where a community of Mandaeans can preserve their existence for the future. UNISCO has already declared the Mandaean language a threatened language.

The UNHCR has an immediate and urgent obligation to start processing more cases for resettlement. We suggest the Organization should take active steps to provide protection for the refugees in Jordan and Syria and give them a proper legal status to prevent abuses.

The UNHCR should consider granting all Mandaeans a full refugee status as a group and not on an individual basis, and give them complete protection from forcible returns to Iraq.

Proper Medical, and humanitarian assistance should be offered and financial support to any agency that can provide that help to the refugees. Active steps from the European Union and USA should be taken to secure the funds allocated to the refugee Mandaeans.

Changes should be made to the Iraqi constitution to guarantee the rights of Mandaeans and other minorities and the Iraqi government and the legal system should implement these changes to gain the trust of minorities in a safe and secure future.

The Iraqi Government should be held responsible for providing financial help for the refugees through independent agencies to provide them with the necessary humanitarian support.

The Iraqi Government should be responsible on recording and saving the properties of the Mandaean community in Iraq including their archives, documents and history until such time that their return is safe.

Militia leaders should be held accountable for crimes against humanity when they or their followers are caught by police in the future.

 

Conclusion

The Mandaeans are part of the indigenous people of Iraq. They are a religious and ethnic minority that is facing annihilation. All articles of the UN declaration that apply to the protection of the indigenous, ethnic and religious minorities are compatible with their situation and should be applied. The Sabian Mandaeans in Iraq are looking for protection from the hate crimes that they are facing. They are looking for the USA and the international community to save their lives, their children and their future and prevent the genocide that is happening.

 

Appendix

Atrocities against the Sabian Mandaean Religion followers since April 9th 2003

 

List of the Murdered Sabian Mandaeans

2003

  1. 1. Satar Radi Zboon, 45 years, goldsmith, 22/10, New Baghdad, Baghdad.

2. Fadha’, Sadam Hummadi Obaid, 40 years, goldsmith, April 23, Maisan/ Msharah.

3. Sabih Shibib Elbab, 60 years, goldsmith, 4/26, Baghdad. Mr. Elbab’s murder was followed by the looting of his shop. Anti Mandaean slogans where shouted while the killing and looting was taking place.

4. Hassani Rahim Al Othmani, May 15, Souwerah. Accused of practicing “magic”.

5. Khalid Ferhan Saif, Killed on May 3rd in Basra by a vicious attach smashing his skull. At the door step of his residence.

6. Zaman Abd Alhamid Adeed, goldsmith, June, Karada, Baghdad.

7. Fakriah Khthir Kattan, in her 40s, housewife, July Baghdad.

8. Aonthar Hasson Moli, 25years, worker, July, Baghdad.

9. Yahya Bardan Aflog, goldsmith, August, Baqoubah.

10. Ahsan Bardan Aflok, goldsmith, August, Baqoubah

11. Salim Mohan Aljayzani, goldsmith, September, Hai alshaab, Baghdad

12. Firas Faraj Saleh, government employee, October, Habaniya, Ramadi.

13. Farooq Ati Lasam, goldsmith, October 9th, Baghdad

14. Satar Radi Zboon, 45 years, goldsmith, October 22nd, New Baghdad, Baghdad. At 11:00am, Zboon was murdered in front of a large crowd. He had begged for mercy according to the tribal customs, which ensure the full protection for the one who asks any tribe for asylum. He was refused it. His crime was being a Mandaean infidel

15. Mhand Abd-Alsahab Almhanawi, goldsmith, November 7th, Baghdad.Young Mandaean man murdered travelling to work in the morning.

16. Dafar Abd Alrahim Khoga, goldsmith, November, Mansour, Baghdad.

17. Nasir Sabah Abdallah, interpreter, November, Baghdad.

18. Monther Hasson Mola Al-Khamesi, 25y, Free Jobs, Baghdad, Al-Shorta /4, After he got shot, the mask men vandal his body while shouting ‘God is great, we killed one of the infidels on December 13th.

2004

19. Baha’a Abdalahad Mtashar, student, January, Maisan.

20. Kasam Lafta Katan, goldsmith, February 7th, Baghdad.

21. Riyad Badri Zbari, goldsmith, February 10th, Baghdad.

22. Asad Hadi Khafi, worker, February, Baghdad.

23. Shafa’a Nasar Majeed, killed, February, Baghdad.

24. Raad Arbi Abeed, February, Baghdad.

25. Ahmad Mahar Abdallah, March, Baghdad.

26. Salman Abdallah Al-Khamisi, May, Baghdad.

27. Mazin Hesnawi, killed on May 17th

28. Laith Anis Amoor, goldsmith, January 11th, Baghdad.

29. Haytham Abdul-Razaq Talib, Car bombed, by Um-Al-Tobol Mosque, in November.

30. Yahya Haithem Abdul-Razaq, Child, Baghdad, Al-Aamel Q., Car bombed, by Um-Al-Tobol Mosque, in November.

31. Rand Salam Talib, 19 y, Employee, Baghdad, Al-Aamel Q., Car bombed, by Um-Al-Tobol Mosque, in November.

32. Mazin Majad Hazam Al-Sabiri, 45 years, was killed in his shop, December 10th, Baya’a, Baghdad.

2005

33. Hadi Salim Mutar, January 3rd, Sadr City, Baghdad. Mr. Mutar was murdered after being kidnapped for ransom. Mutar’s family paid the ransom in full, but shortly thereafter had received his body and told that he was killed after his refusal to convert to Islam. Islamic ceremonies were imposed upon him during his death.

34. Read Radhi Habib, 40years, engineer, January 16th, Basrah. He was the leader of the Mandaean Council in Basrah

35. Jamal Khmas Tamol, veterinary doctor, February 1st, Baghdad.

36. Wasfi Majid Khashkool, 35 years, February 5th .He was killed in his shop by a gunman. Nothing was stolen.

37. Waleed Hasan Thabit, 45 years, contractor, killed in front of his house February 28th, Dora, Baghdad.

38. Salwa Samir Aziz was assassinated on March 4th in Baya’a, Baghdad. She had refused to wear the Islamic hijab.

39. Muhannad Khazaal Lafta was brutally knifed to death on March 14th after constant threats that forced him to change his place of residence several times.

40. Ryad Radi Habib 45 years, engineer, in March, Basrah.

41. Salwa Samir Azez, 25yr, translator, killed on March 24th in Baghdad

42. Mohanad Khzal Lafta, March 21st, Baghdad. Lafta was bludgeoned to death with hammers.

43. Wisam Majid Khaskool Al-Mesodni, April, Amriya, Baghdad.

44. Muayad Ibrahim Muhy Kzar, May, Sadr City, Baghdad.

45. Rahman Sabri Almajadi, April 14th, Baghdad.

46. Khairy Abdul Razaq, realtor, April 2nd, Hai el- Mechanic, Baghdad.He refused to sell his house; he was murdered in his office with machine guns.

47. Moaiad Ibrahim Mohie, goldsmith, April 11th, Baghdad.

48. Salah Lafta Saleh, 20 years, college student, June 1st, Ramadi. Mr. Saleh was kidnapped from the university dorms by an extremist group which had learned Saleh was a Mandaean. His dead body was found thrown in a street.

49. Amar Daif Karem, 18 years, goldsmith, June, Nasreah.

50. Mahar Sharad Zbala, goldsmith, June 6th, Baghdad. Mr. Zbala was murdered in front of his family.

51. Abdul Raheem Al-Musodani, 15 June, Dora, Baghdad.

52. Al-Musodani was murdered after being beaten on the head with hammers.

53. Nawar Hameed Dakheel, 28 June. Dakheel was murdered in front of his house. He was accused of dealing with “the infidels”, i.e. Coalition forces.

54. Basim Shenshal Al-Sunaid, 15 July, in his home in Al-Mansour, Baghdad.

55. Haitham Mahdi Saleh, mid July . Saleh was brutally murdered in his home in Al-Saydiya.

56. Fawzi Mezban Al-Khameesi, 50 years, goldsmith, July 31st, Baghdad. He was kidnapped from his house, tortured, killed, and cut into pieces. No ransom was requested, nor was anything stolen from his home.

57. Anwar Manam Saleh, 20years, student, August 15th, Ramadi.

58. Saeed Naeem Thahab, 40 years, goldsmith, August 24th, Baghdad.

59. Issam Jabar Hamadi, government employee, September 28th, Baghdad.

60. Marwan Salam Sabri Salman, Child, Baghdad, Al-Bayaa, killed near Al-Bayaa Police Station on September 28th .

61. Kamal Rathi Zabon, goldsmith, October 10th, Baghdad

62. Amjad Naeem Dhahab Goldsmith, on October 3rd , in Alqudes Police Station

63. Dafer Zaki, october 20th Killed in Baghdad

64. Basam Kasam Sokawi 19 years, student, November 13th, Baghdad.

65. Khairy Satar Farhan, Contractor, Baghdad, November, Dura

66. Ahmad Zaki Al-Mandawa, Kidnapped, but later killed because he identified one of the kidnappers. November.

67. Sarah Najim Hani, December 28th .

2006

68. Umran Sahar,Engineer February 15th, Al-Suwara

69. Mahir Jameel Jeyad Al- Zuhairy, April 9th, After paying the ransom, they strangled Mahir, burnt and threw him near to a dump.

70. Adel J. Al-Kalmashi, on May 23rd, Unknown group threaten him, adel left the area, but they killed him after being identified

71. Salam Menatei, onMay 26th 6, Baghdad, Killed in front of his family.

72. Ahmad Atta, on May 28th, Baghdad, Al-amel Q, Ahmed received threat to leave the area, he did, then he was killed in his shop and his body was left in the street for a while.

73. Yahya Barakh Bahidh Al-Chuhaily,June 6th . Killed near Rumadi with an Attempt to kill the whole family. his two daughters and two year old son (killed on 6th of June) on the Ramadi highway . His wife, sister and other daughter where badly injured and in hospital They were stoped by insurgence during their escape to Jordan and killed after they knew they were mandaeans.

74. Shahad Al- Kohaily Child 3y killed onJune 6th killed with father

75. Noor Al-Kohaily, Child 12yr, killed on June 6th with father

76. Wud Al- Kohaily, Child 14yr,June 6th killed with father . The Mother Hanaa Joory Zahi (Mrs. Al-Kohaily) Injured and now suffer from severe nervous breakdown because she witness one of her daughters body being torn in two pieces. The other children, Azal 6y, Rafal 8y severe left with severe psychological trauma.

77. Manhal Heliel, Baghdad, Alshaab Q, Killed by his shop & injured his Son. June.

78. Jaseb Edan Lafta, Goldsmith, killed on June 17th, Al-Sader City.Baghdad, Killed while Gang shouting slogans against the infidel, shop looted completely, no one interfered to help or stop the murder.

79. Atif Saeed Al-Kilany, on June 19th , Baghdad

80. Mezdeher Kalid Al-Muhanna, killed on July 17th, Mahmodia area.

81. Raheem Rasheed Al-Sabiri, killed on July 5th . Al-Dorra, Baghdad

82. Zuhair Oaddah Fandi killed on July 7th, Abu-Dsheer Al-Dorra, Baghdad

83. Rasheed Abed Wady, killed on July 9th, Al- Baeya’a, Murdered by firing a bullet to his head by 3 armed men..

84. Bassam Ali Ka’aed Alkalmshi, Student 23yrs, killed on 20-7-2006, Baghdad, Sha’ab area. Slaughtered after armed group found that he was Mandaean, The body found in a shallow grave in A’adamia Area .

85. Shihab Algum Dukhan Al-Othmani August 27th, Murdered in Al-Khalus – Deyala

86. Diyaa Noori Nasir Shiltagh Al-Musoodni University Lecturer August 30th, Died after kidnapping his son.

87. Kousay Sabah Shamikh Zighayer 23y killed on August 31st, Kurkok, Murdered at his home.

88. Razzak Jabbar Al-Mihanna Al-Nahar Street, Baghdad, killed on September 26th, Has been slaughtered

89. Fadaam Kawoosh Al-Sabahi Al-Mandawi 74 yrs killed on October 6th, Killed and injured his Son seriously

90. Raad Matar Falih Al-Othmani, killed on October 10th, Al-Suwara, South of Baghdad, Killed because he was practicing to be a religious leader.

91. Ali Riyad Saeed Dakheel Al-Khafagi, killed on October 11th, Abo Ghraib, South of Baghdad, Killed in his barber shop.

92. Husam Jabbar Abaid Al-Zuhairi, killed on October 16th, Aur district, Baghdad

93. Oday abdulla Abid Al-Sada Al-gaylani, killed on October 21st, Mahmoodia, South of Baghdad, Young man married with less than one year old Baby..

94. Ziad Majed Sabbar Al-Zuhairi, 17 yrs, killed in October, Al-Yarmook, Baghdad, Stoed by 4 masked gun men and shot.

95. Muhamad Fahmi Durbash Al-Dulaimi, Own small fabric shop, killed in November, Shahraban, Deyala, Killed in his shop.

96. Azhar Ameen, Farhan, Teacher, killed on November 9th, Al-Saidia, Baghdad, Killed in the school., She left 3 young Orphanes as their father burned to death last year in another incident.

97. Hazim Raheem Zghair Al-Zuhairi 19 yr killed on November 11th, Mahmoodia, south Baghdad, Kidnapped on 9th November on his way from Maysan province.

98. Suhail Jani Sahar,Engineer, 1946, Nov 19th . stoed by death squads in Eskanderia taken with other Sunni engineers and believed to be killed. No body was found.

99. Abid Kareem Hajim Sultan Al-Kulmishi,Born 1929, killed on November 21st, Hay Al-Amel, Baghdad

100. Son of Kadir Amer Al-Khamis (Waiting for more information )

101. Maysaa Harbi Thurb Al-Mahanawi, Born 1974, killed on November 28th, Hay Al-Amel, Baghdad

102. Talib Salman Araby, Practicing to be a religious leader, Brother of religious leader, November.

103. Kareem Salman Araby Born 1955, killed on December 2nd, Hay Uoor, Baghdad Kidnaped from his house while his family were begging for mercy. Killed near his house execution style.

104. Kareem Jabbar Al- Mahanna killed December 12th, Baghdad, Kidnapped on 4th, but later the body found slaughtered in Hay Al-Amil. His brother slaughtered on 26/09/2006, refer to # 32

105. Jehad salman Al-Nashi killed on December 26th by a bomb.

106. Wasif Aziz Lami Al-Dehaisi, a Pharnacist, assassination attempt in December, he shot badly in the back and leg, in hospital in critical condition.

2007

107. Dr. Sabah Zahroun Waham Al-Sam, born 1947, Assacinated on January 25th 2007 by Exterimists in Mansur, Baghdad. He received threat letters before his assacination.

108. Shaker Abood Khamas, assassination attempt on January 7th 2007, shot few times and died few days later.

109. On 02/01/2007 killed Dr. Sabah Zeron Wham in Al- Mansour area for the purpose of killing the Mandaean creative minds.

110. On 11/1/2007 the Mandaee Shakir Aboud Kammas was subjected to injury by shooting with nine shots, they were targeting his life. People then transferred him to Syria for treatment, as well as fear of the return of offenders and murderers, but he died there on 22/1/2007

111. Abdul Wahed Ghanem Luaeby born in Basra in 1962, killed on 15/01/07 by Al-Jaderia Bridge, Baghdad because he was the driver of the sect leader, father of 4 young children

112. Haleem janzeel Muhaibes Al-Zuhairy killed on 20/01/07 by gunmen in Maysan province as he was leaving back home after work

113. Hameed Ghazi Kareem Al-Eadany killed on 02/02/07 by gunmen breaking in to his house by force in Doora district, Baghdad

114. Ramzi Adday Al-Zuhairy killed on 05/02/07 in Hay Al-Aamel district, Baghdad by gunmen because he was Mandaean

115. Ramzi is father to 7 daughters living in Saidia, Baghdad. His family recieved many threats by phone for arranging a furenal to him

116. Wesam Jar Allah Manhoosh Al-Sabti born in Basrah 0n 1963 killed on 07/02/07 by gunmen because he arranged the funeral to Ramzi Adday above. Wesam is father of 4 children

117. Saidiya Saeed Al-Khafagi (Mrs) killed on 14/2/07 together with her boys and kidnapping her daughters to unknown destination.

118. Tahseen Abdullah Abid Shindy found dead after two weeks of kidnapping which took place on 03/02/07 on the way to Ramadi province His family never received the body . Family left Iraq to live in Syria.

119. Salih Mahdi Habeeb killed on 11/03/07 by shot gun in Saidia, Baghdad

120. Husham Auda Zghair Al-Khamisi condemn publicly kidnapping his brother Saad on 8/03/07 (refer to close26, page 7) which led to the return of same gunmen, kicking him badly, loosing conciseness then died after a week on 15/03/07

121. The above two victim’s brother Adnan killed in Anbar which led to their father passing a way as a result.

122. Eman Ali Hoozy killed in Al-Shurta district, Baghdad on 15/04/07 besides her three daughters:

123. Maryam Riyadh Khazaal

124. Malak Riyadh Khazaal

125. Yamama Riyadh Khazaal

126. Mane’e Funjan Nu’aman Al-Suhaily killed on 18/04/07 by mortar attack in Al-Ea’lam district, Baghdad

127. Yahya Abadi Al-Uthmani killed on 4/05/07 in Nasiriya province. cousin to Raad Matar Falih Al-Uthmani who killed on 10/10/06

128. Adel Mubarak Ibrahim killed on 17/05/07 in Al-Doora district, Baghdad while working after 5 days of kidnapping by gun men. Adel born 1980 lives in Ramadi province, married and father of two.

129. Salih Mahdi Habeeb killed on 11/03/07 by shot gun in Saidia, Baghdad

130. Mane’e Funjan Nu’aman Al-Suhaily killed on 18/04/07 by mortar attack in Al-Ea’lam district, Baghdad

131. Yahya Abadi Al-Uthmani killed on 4/05/07 in Nasiriya province. cousin to Raad Matar Falih Al-Uthmani who killed on 10/10/06

132. Salama Hamdi Salih (Mrs) killed on 22/05/07 in a truck explosion in Al-Amel district, Baghdad Husband Atshan Khashan injured.

133. Brothers Bassam and Ghasan Ma’yoof attacked by machine gun on 25/5/07 at work at Khoor Al Zubair south of Basra killing Bassam and severely injuring his brother Ghasa

134. Layla Laiby Mukalaf Al-Khamisi (Mrs.) killed on 12/06/07 in Al Saydia district, Baghdad by mortar attack

135. Bader Haloob Waheem Al-Khamisi killed on 01/07/07 when militant group attack the vehicle he was in, in Al-Eallam district, Baghdad

136. Esam Abdul Jabbar Funjan killed on 9/07/07 in Baghdad

137. 17 years old Noor Saad Al-Khamisi killed on 10/7/07 on the way back from Syria

138. Aatif Jamil Muhuy Kezar Al- Khamisi born 1965 father of 4 killed on 5/8/07 by militants at his work place in Al-Qadisiya district

139. Arslan Aatif Abdul Raheem Al- Khamisi, young Mandaean killed in August 07

140. Nabeel Khaleel Nasir Jabur Al- Khamisi father of two young children killed on 27/9/07 in Abo Disheer, Baghdad

141. Nazal Jallab Suwady Al- Mesodny found dead on October 07 after he was kidnapped on 13-14/4/2003 in Karkuk province

142. Abdul Nabby Abdul Sada Turfy born 1955 kidnapped in Al Bayaa district, Baghdad on 23/10/ 07 then killed on 26/10/07 in spite paying $ 50000 ransom. His only Son 21 yrs old Eahab kidnapped prior to this incident and released after paying ransom

143. Kan’an Leelo Rayhan killed on 16/11/07 in Al- Bayaa district, Baghdad.

144. Bashar Leelo Ghawi killed on 12/12/07 in Maysan province

145. Hani Ghadeer Hajim Al-Kuhaili killed on 25/12/07 in Al-Nahar Street, Baghdad

146. Falah Saleem Lazem died on 30/12/07 after he has shot on 25/12/07 in Al-Nahar Street, Baghdad

List of the Kidnapped Sabian Mandaeans

1. The following are a few examples of kidnappings. Most of the kidnappings are dealt with through intermediaries in full silence or else death will follow:

2. May 2003, Miss B. Z., a Mandaean girl, was kidnapped and assaulted.

3. May 2003, Miss N. S. S., a Mandaean girl was kidnapped in Baghdad.

4. July 2nd 2003, S. L. R.., age 29, was kidnapped in Alshurta, Baghadad. She has disappeared ever since.

5. In mid October, a group of Muslim men kidnapped L.F.K., a 25year Mandaean woman, who works in a hospital in Baghdad. Her whereabouts are still unknown.

6. Denial Salam Ajeel Shaher, a child kidnapped on 27 October 2003 in Al-Saidia Baghdad, ransom paid for his release

7. Evan Shafeeq Bader Kumar, 8 yr. old child kidnapped on 2004 in Al-Jehad, Al-Atbaa, Baghdad, a ransom paid for his release

8. Anhar Sami Al-Bankani, a child kidnapped on 2004

9. Nofal Adel Hajwal, a childe kidnapped on 2004 in Al-Bayaa, Baghdad

10. Samer Sabih Neema Heliel, kidnapped in 2004

11. Sinan Yas Khthier, kidnapped in 2004 in New Baghdad, Baghdad

12. Hala Asaad Al-Sayfee, a child kidnapped in 2004 in Baghdad

13. Basheer Metasher Sewan, kidnapped in 2004 in New Baghdad, Baghdad

14. Ibraheem Khalil Khalf Al-Asdy, Goldsmith kidnapped in 2004 in Al-Karadah, Baghdad

15. Fawzy Mezban Faraj, religious man, kidnapped in 2004 in Baghdad

16. Kareem Salman Areiby, kidnapped in 2004 in Baghdad

17. Kheiam Raheem Zahron, kidnapped on 12 December 2004

18. Kamal raed Sabri, a child kidnapped on 12 December 2004 in Al-Dura, Baghdad. Kamal’s mother died as a result.

19. Rawan Raed Sabri, a child kidnapped on 12 December 2004 in Al-Dura, Baghdad Rawan’s mother died as a result

20. Hawazn Druied Sabri Darweesh, kidnapped on 30 September 2004 in Al-Bayaa district 834

21. Rami Nezar Yaser Sakar, a child kidnapped in 2004 in Palistine Street, Baghdad

22. Hayder Zamil Rathi, a goldsmith kidnapped in 2004, in New Baghdad, Baghdad

23. Raed Jaseb Hathal Al-Zuhairy, a Goldsmith kidnapped in 2004 in New Baghdad, Baghdad

24. Reyadh Dakhel Thamer Al-Khamesi, a goldsmith kidnapped in 2004 in Basra

25. France Atshan Bakhakh, a goldsmith kidnapped in 2004 in Al-Saidia, Baghdad

26. Adel Qadory Talal, a goldsmith kidnapped in 2004 in Baghdad

27. Shaymaa Harab Neema Hashos, University student kidnapped in 2004 in Zayona, Baghdad

28. Feras Moaaid, a goldsmith shot then kidnapped in 2004

29. Hamed Jabber Lazim Al-Saife, a goldsmith suffer kidnapping attempt in 2004

30. Hussam Sadeq, student kidnapped in Naeeria, Al-Thawra, Baghdad

31. Sadeq Majeed Daalag, a 40 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped in 2004 in Naeeria, Al-Thawra, Baghdad

32. Adel Hekmat Sadeq, a goldsmith kidnapped in 2004 in Baghdad

33. Ram Khabel Atwan, a 12 yrs old kidnapped on 11 November 2004 who released after paying ransom and after circumcised by force

34. Salah Rumi Rhaima was kidnapped on March 20th 2005 after threats to change his religion. Ransom was paid.

35. Newman Jabber Farmhand, Student, was kidnapped on March 27th 2005 and released after ransom was paid.

36. Shirk Bard Kumar was kidnapped in March 2005 and released after ransom was paid.

37. Basil Assam Latin, a child, was kidnapped on April 3rd 2005.

38. Zamia Audi Left was kidnapped on May 8th 2005 in Al-Sad city, and was badly treated before ransom was paid and he was released.

39. Jamal Nair Mohr was kidnapped on May 8th 2005 in Al-Sad city, and was badly treated before ransom was paid and he was released.

40. Selah Malawi was kidnapped on May 8th 2005 in Al-Sad city, and was badly treated before ransom was paid and he was released.

41. Anther Abdul Kari Atria was kidnapped on June 21st 2005. He was released after ransom was paid and his car was stolen.

42. Insane Sachet was kidnapped on June 27th 2005 and released after ransom was paid.

43. Muwafaq Ghayadh Jabir was kidnapped for a second time on June 27th 2005.

44. Khalid abed al-Sadaha was kidnapped. His family sold every thing and to pay the $80, 000 ransom. He was freed, November 10th. During his captivity he witnessed 3 beheadings]

45. Leza Saffa Khairy, a child kidnapped on 24 May 2004 in Baghdad

46. Mohanad naeem Ghleem Jari, a 35 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped twice one of the incidents were on 25 September 2004 in Al-Dura, Baghdad

47. Saif Mahir Abdul-Saheb, a 12 yrs old child kidnapped on 12 October 2004 in Baghdad

48. Alaa Samee Faraj, a 38 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 7 July 2005 in Dura, Al-Mechanic, Baghdad

49. Weaam Waleed Taih Sabri, a 19 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 9 July 2005 in Al-Dura, Baghdad, released after paying ransom]

50. Ardwan Ayad Athari Shnawah, kidnapped on 24 September 2004 in Al-Bayaa, Baghdad

51. Basher K. Alaway, kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad, released after paying ransom

52. Zaydon Khalid Khalel Mallah, a goldsmith kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad

53. Masin Shneshel Talaa Al-Khamesi, a goldsmith kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad, released after paying ransom

54. Wesam Essam Abdullatif, a child kidnapped on 3 April 2005 in Al-Saidia, Baghdad

55. Zamil O. Lafta Al-Zuhairy, a 56 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 8 May 2005 in Baghdad and tortured during captivity.

56. Anhr Latif Aouda Aziz, kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad

57. Nabil Zaki Mozan, a 40 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped in Al-Shorta 5, Baghdad

58. Rami Abdul Razaq Aroebi, kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad

59. Rafaat Raed Mereez Farag, a goldsmith kidnapped on 11 September 2005 in Al-Shaab, Baghdad. incident reported to Al-Shaab Police Station

60. Kamal Ward Mansour, a goldsmith kidnapped on 18 April 2005 in Al-Bayaa, Baghdad

61. Saadia Abdullah Mozan, 28 yrs old housewife kidnapped on 6 September 2005 in Al-Bayaa, Baghdad

62. Sarmad Qasem Nafil Wali, 18 yrs old Student kidnapped on 19 October 2005 in Al-Bonnok, Baghdad

63. Malik Marzok Kaban, a goldsmith kidnapped on 18 January 2005 in Al-Khathraa, Basra

64. Muneer Abdul-Wahed Yousif, 50 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 5 November 2005 in Al-Saidia, Baghdad, released after paying ransom

65. Raed Jamil Zarzor, a goldsmith kidnapped on 25 June 2003 in Abu Ghraib, near Baghdad

66. Taghreed Fadhel Muslem, a student kidnapped in Baghdad

67. Evan Nadeem Fazaa, 28 yrs old Civil engineer kidnapped on 13 September 2005 in Ajnadeen, Al-Bayaa, Baghdad. Incident reported at Al-Bayaa Police Station

68. Abdul Sattar Faris Al-Suhaily, 65 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 17 April 2005 in Al-Bayaa Street, Baghdad

69. Laith Hady Jabek, 35 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 25 May 2005 in Al-Thawra, Baghdad

70. Hadi Saad Salman, 47 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 19 June 2005 in Al-Shaab, Baghdad. Incident reported at Al-Shaab Police Station

71. Abady Neema, kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad

72. Suoad Hatab Sahar, 40 yrs old Housewife kidnapped on 20 January 2005 in Al-Thawra, Baghdad

73. Omar Katee Ajmy, 21 yrs old worker kidnapped on 6 September 2005 in Al-Bayaa, Baghdad

74. Latifa O. Aziz, 42 yrs old Housewife kidnapped on 10 September 2005 in Al-Shorta 4, Baghdad

75. Ramez Jamal Salman Saeed, 20 yrs old Student kidnapped on 16 August 2005 in Dura Al-Mechanic, Baghdad, incident reported to Police Station

76. Omar Wasfi Jari, 19 yrs old kidnapped on 25 August 2005 in Uor, Baghdad

77. Sarmad Sameer Jabar Abdul-Nabi, 39 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 20 August 2005 in Ragheba Khaton, Baghdad

78. Adel Aiesh Fatah, a goldsmith kidnapped on 9 August 2005 in Al-Thawra, Baghdad

79. Safaa Desher Zamil, 42 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 25 May 2005 in Al-Bayaa, Baghdad

80. Kahtan Amer Jabber, 68 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 26 September 2005 in Al-Bayaa, Baghdad

81. Dalia faisal aboud, 30 yrs old Housewife kidnapped on 18 September 2005 in Al-Bayaa, Baghdad

82. Essa Abady Faleh, 38 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 10 October 2005 in Dura Al-Mechanic, Baghdad. Incident reported at Police Station

83. Bassam Fawzi Naeem, 30 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 19 August 2005 in Al-Shorta 5, Baghdad

84. Mekhled Raheem Kashkol, a goldsmith kidnapped on 17 July 2005 in Al-Bayaa, Baghdad. Released after paying ransom

85. Maha Saleem Hamady Aboid, a female kidnapped in 2004 in Baghdad

86. Aseel Thameen Basher Sajet, a female kidnapped on 20 October 2004 in Al-Mansour, Baghdad

87. Khalid Layoos Afn Al-Athmani, kidnapped in 2005 in Al-Bayaa, Baghdad, still missing

88. Ahmad Mahir Sheck Abdullah Al-Shieckh Yahya, kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad

89. Basher Hanon Al-Kelani, 60 yrs old merchant kidnapped on November 2005 in Al-Saidia, Baghdad, released after paying huge ransom

90. Helen Ahad Bader, kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad

91. Ghassan Shabeb Dhayef Al-Fregy, kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad

92. Waleed Khalid Abdul-Sada Al-Sabri, kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad

93. Jabar Nasir Thabet Al-Khamesi, 50 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped in 2005 in Al-Mansour, Baghdad

94. Ali Basem Talib Abd Nasir, 15 yrs old Student kidnapped in 2005 in Abu-Ghraib, Baghdad

95. Lina Aos Anees Amour, a child kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad

96. Maha Kareem Kargy Yasin, 16 yrs old female Student kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad and still missing

97. Anmar Hafeth Dawood Nafel, 18 yrs old goldsmith worker kidnapped in September 2005 in Abu-Ghraib

98. Khalid Akram Khalid Mohy, 30 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 6 July 2005 in Ramadee.

99. His shop burgled, he was tortured and given 3 days ultimatum to convert to Islam . Now he left Iraq

100. Saleem Hajool Al-Kuhaily, 56 yrs goldsmith kidnapped on 1 June 2005 in Ramadee.His shop burgled and he was tortured and threatened to demolish his house

101. Alaa Atee, 52 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 6 September 2005.His shop was burgled and he was tortured

102. Abdul-Jabbar Khalaf Al-Meaanawi, 38 yrs old goldsmith kidnapped on 4 January 2006 in Al-Aamel, Baghdad. Released after paying huge ransom.

103. Intesar Saad Salman, kidnapped on 12 September 2005 in Baghdad

104. Inas Sady Jabar, kidnapped on 29 August 2005 in Baghdad. Incident reported at Al-Bayaa Police Station

105. Ahmad Zaki Al-Mendawy, a goldsmith kidnapped in Baghdad. Incident reported at Al-Bayaa Police Station

106. Ibtesam Jouda, kidnapped in 2004 in New Baghdad, Baghdad

107. Amal Majeed Meklef, kidnapped in 2004 in Baghdad

108. Bushra Hamody Meklef, kidnapped in 24 May 2004 in University Q., Baghdad

109. Jwan Reyadh Hady, kidnapped in 2004 in Baghdad

110. Jouda Shenan Al-Bregy, kidnapped on 23 June 2004 in Baghdad from his house by force

111. Raed Kamel Taih, kidnapped on 11 December 2004 in Al-Shaab, Baghdad. Incident reported at Police Station

112. Souad Hatab Sahar, kidnapped on 20 October 2005 in Baghdad. incident reported at Al-Karadah Police Station

113. Sameer Harby Sabty, kidnapped on 26 September 2005 in Baghdad. Incident reported at Al-Bayaa Police Station

114. Senan Khazal Atia, kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad

115. Taif Khalel Ibraheem, kidnapped on 23 June 2005 in Baghdad

116. Aoroba Jameel Aziz, kidnapped on 22 August 2005 in Al-Bayaa, Baghdad. Incident reported at Al-Bayaa Police Station

117. Abdul-Wahab Saad Abdul-Wahab, kidnapped in 2004 in Baghdad

118. Ohood Mwafq Maky, kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad

119. Etab Najy Farhan, kidnapped on 10 May 2004 in Baghdad

120. Mushreq Abdul-Razaq Adm, kidnapped on 20 August 2005 in Al-Muthana. Incident reported at Al-Muthana Police Station

121. Methaq Abdul-Wahed Shenshel, kidnapped on 14 August 2005 in Al-Dura, Baghdad. Incident reported at Al-Dura Police Station

122. Majed Katee Yousif, kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad

123. Melad Oday Yousif, kidnapped in 2005 in Thi Qar. Incident reported at Thi Qar Police Station

124. Mazin Myaser Mahdy, kidnapped on 22 February 2005 in Baghdad

125. Mansour Jabar Mansour, kidnapped in 2005 in Baghdad, his wife also kidnapped to force him change Religion

126. Nashwan Kahtasn Amer, kidnapped on 18 September 2005 in Baghdad. Incident reported at Al-Bayaa Police Station

127. Nawras Abdul-Satar Faris, kidnapped on 25 August 2005 in Al-Bayaa, Baghdad Incident reported at Al-Bayaa Police Station

128. Abdul-Wahab Saeed

129. Senan Khazaal

130. Ohood Mofaqa, kidnapped on10 May 2004

131. Melad Oday

132. Taif Khalil, kidnapped on 23 June 2004

133. Yohana Abdul Kathem

134. Hayder Zamil Rathe

135. Ram Wasfi

136. Raed Jaseb

137. Rafy Nezar

138. Yahya Kathem

139. Aziz Sanhour

140. Afyaa Nory rasead

141. Ansar Mnady

142. Shaheed Kareem

143. Aseel Basher, kidnapped on 20 October 2004

144. Muthafer Halbos

145. Najwan Jabber Farhan, kidnapped on 27 March2005

146. Emad Jabar Khalaf, kidnapped on 4 January 2006 in Baghdad

147. Asmah Qasem Nafee, kidnapped on 21 October 2005

148. Ban Toma Zaki kidnapped on May 2005

149. Suha Lateef Raheem kidnapped on 2 July2004

150. Lez Safaa Khairy, kidnapped on 24 May 2004

151. Laith Bassam Husny, kidnapped on 2 September 2004

152. Mahdy Sabah Helo, kidnapped and attempt to murder

153. Basim Essam Lateef, kidnapped on 3 April 2005

154. Mohammad Saleem Hamady, kidnapped on 27 October 2004

155. Hanaa G. Najim

156. Bahaa Amen Shnawa, kidnapped on 7 January 2006

157. Sami Kareem Taresh, kidnapped on 29 December 2005 in Baghdad

158. Dhafer Al-Zohairy, kidnapped on 12 February 2006 in Al-Ramady

159. Fareed Atia Al-Khamesy, kidnapped on12 February 2006 in Al-Ramady

160. Jabar Al-Mesodnay, kidnapped on 2 March 2006

161. Hamody Metasher, kidnapped on 2 April 2006

162. Ransom paid by Feras Thabet, whose Car was later stolen

163. Arslan Atif Abdul-Raheem, kidnapped on 1 May 2006

164. Leaby Thamer Al-Kalmashi, kidnapped on 10 May 2006 Leaby was a member of the Mandaean’s Social Committee, the kidnappers demanded $250000.00 for his release.

165. Maytham Jabar Mutar kidnapped on14 May 2006 Maytham is planning to leave Iraq, he and his family are still threatened with kidnap

166. Yahya Mohammewd Bayo, a child kidnapped on 17 May 2006 when he was going to School in Al-Qadesia, Baghdad

167. Aiad Tarik Galim kidnapped on 25 May 2006 in Al-Doora, Baghdad, released after 8 days and after paying $20000 ransom

168. Adel Haider Shibeeb, a goldsmith kidnapped on 27 May 2006 in Baladroose by gunmen wearing police uniform.He was tortured badly and paid a big ransom before being released

169. Miss Hadeel Tawfeeq Al- Geezani University Student kidnapped on 22 June 2006 Kidnappers contact the family and said’ forget you had a daughter’

170. Nael Al- Zuhairi kidnapped on 01 July 2006 in Abo Al- Khaseeb, Basra together with his family, then the family has been released, but he is still missing

171. Asa’d Sabah Salman Saadawi kidnapped on 10 July 2006 from his workplace in Al-Karrada Baghdad, all content has been looted, released after paying ransom

172. Saeed Sabah kidnapped on 10 July 2006

173. Sarmad Rajee Barghash kidnapped on 12 July 2006

174. Muhamad Fahmi kidnapped on 14 July 2006 in Al-Mukhdadia .He is very poor man, his job was to look after somebody’s else house, released after paying ransom

175. Abbod Al-Zuhairy kidnapped on 18 July 2006

176. Ra’ad Shatan kidnapped in July 2006 on his way out to Syria, still missing

177. Muhanad Mishkal Al-Misodni kidnapped on July 06 in Basra, released after 1 month in captivity

178. Nadeg Ghazaal Hammady kidnapped on 19 July 2006

179. Dheyaa Yasir Mauhey kidnapped on 27 July 06 in Deyala, still missing

180. Raad Matar Faleh, Seweara, shot and injured

181. Kamil Noori Al-kuhaily kidnapped in August 2006 in Basra, released after 2 weeks in captivity

182. Sarah Sadi Muslim 15 yrs old student kidnapped on August 2006 in Syria

183. Dr. Nisreen Abd Al-Lateef Jaleel, a Dentist kidnapped on 07 August 2006 in Baghdad, attempt to kidnapped and killing

184. Nashwan Sameer Dehrab kidnapped on 10 August 2006 in Palestine Street Baghdad, Still missing

185. Basil Humam Abd Al-Ghani, Employed kidnapped on 13 August 2006 in Baghdad Released on 16 August 2006 after paying ransom

186. Salwan Sameer Dahrab, ayoung man kidnapped on 17 August 2006 in Al-Saydia, Baghdad, still missing.

187. Mubarak Hameed Mageed kidnapped on 23 August 2006 in Al- Dora, Baghdad .Released after paying ransom, but still receiving threats to him and his family

188. Son of Mr. Diyaa Noori Nasir Shiltagh Al-Musoodni, a young man kidnapped on 28 August 2006 in Baghdad, kidnapped and threaten to be killed, but survive the incident.His father a University lecturer passed a way as a result of the chock.

189. Sami Glass Al-Mandawi, a young man kidnapped on 29 August 2006 in Kut Still missing

190. Wajdy Abd Al-Jabar Munhal kidnapped on 5 September 2006 Released after paying ransom

191. Firas Shaker Ghlaeem

192. Nassir Hantoosh Eedan Al- Mihana kidnapped on 5 September 2006 .Released after paying ransom

193. Kamal Fakhri and Son Suroor kidnapped on 17 September 2006 Kidnapped on their way to Syria and released on 19th after paying ransom

194. Kusai Saeed Salih kidnapped on 29 September 2006 in Heat City Released after 1 week after paying ransom

195. Muhanad Wesam Sami kidnapped on 29 September 2006 in Heat City Released after 1 week after paying ransom

196. Jasim Rashid Al-Zuhairy kidnapped on 1 October 2006 in Baghdad Al- gadeda, Baghdad Kidnapped after being shot in his back

197. Nasrat Abdul jabber Dhamad kidnapped on 1 October 2006 in Baghdad Al- gadeda, Baghdad A waiting more information.

198. Ayar Sattar Fadhil kidnapped in Abo Al-Khaseeb, Basra Released after paying ransom

199. Louay Haraj Madlool Al-Suhairy kidnapped on 22 October 2006 Kidnapped on the way Syria

200. Safaa Sauri Zagi Al-Khamisi kidnapped on 16 November 2006 in Al- Dora, Baghdad Released after paying ransom

201. Hamid Abood Fandi, Shop keeper kidnapped on 16 November 2006 in Al- Dora, Baghdad, all shop contents and stock has been burglarized.

202. Rashad Jabar Khalaf kidnapped on 16 November 2006 in Al-Saydia, Baghdad Released on 18th after paying ransom

203. Louay Akram Hayder Hazim 18 yrs old student kidnapped, assaulted, circumcised by force and threatened to kill his family, then released after paying ransom

204. Sadikh Abid Allah Jabar Al-Kulmishi kidnapped on 29 November 2006 in Al- Dora, Baghdad His brother kidnapped in the same time, but later released

205. Jamal Warid Mansour Al-Muhana 48 yrs old kidnapped on 02 December 2006 in Al-Shatra Thee-qar. Kidnapers demanding $250,000 ransom

206. Kareem Jabbar Al- Mahanna kidnapped on 4 December 2006 in BaghdadHis brother slaughtered on 26 September 2006

207. Louay Sauri Zagi Al-Khamisi kidnapped in December 2006 in BaghdadReleased after taking all his belongings and $ 1000, his brother kidnapped on 16 November 2006 .

208. Feras Sallom AlShaikh Farag 43 yrs old kidnapped on 23 December 06 in Baghdad

209. Faris Aomara Al-Mandawi kidnapped in January 07 in Diyala

210. Two daughter of Hamil Musha’l Lazim’s family age 14 &16 kidnapped from Shahraban on 3/01/07

211. Sabah Suhail Al-Mhanawi kidnapped by gunmen on 8/01/07 in Rasafa part of Baghdad Released on 9/01/07 after ransom was paid

212. Mahmood Shukry Johar goldsmith kidnapped on 11/01/07 in Al-Shurta district, Baghdad, his where about are still unknown

213. Rasha Thaer (Miss) kidnapped on 12/01/07 in Mansoor district, Baghdad, released after paying ransom

214. Diyaa Hasson Bakhal kidnapped by gunmen on 13/01/07 in Uoor district, Baghdad from his place of work. Released on 17/01/07 after ransom was paid

215. Saris Al-Kuhaili kidnapped and tortured on 15/01/07, released after paying ransom

216. Husam Zaki Al-Sheikh Khazaal kidnapped and tortured by gunmen on 15/01/07 bu Al-Dawoody petrol station, Baghdad after steeling his car .Released on 17/01/07 after ransom was paid

217. Faris Emara Al-Mandawi kidnapped and tortured on 17/01/07 in Diyala Province, released after paying ransom

218. Maytham Abd Al-Razzak Talib Al-Kulmishi kidnapped by gunmen on 25/01/07 in Rasafa part of Baghdad Released on 27/01/07 after ransom was paid

219. On 27/01/07 family of young Mandaean Saadi Majed Hazim Al-Sabery disappeared on the way to Dewaniya, which include

220. Mum Layla Saeed

221. Wife; Azhar Atwan Shareef Al-Gailani

222. Son; Ahmed Saadi Al-Sabery

223. Daughters; Sara Saadi Al-Sabery

224. Maryam Saadi Al-Sabery

225. Narjes Saadi Al-Sabery

226. Esam Aasif Aziz Lamy kidnapped on 30/01/07, his where about are still unknown

227. Jasim Rashid Mansoor Al-Zuhairy kidnapped by gunmen on 02/02/07 in Baghdad Al-gadeda district, Baghdad Ransom has been paid, but never released to date of writing this report.

228. Tahseen Abdullah Abid Shindy kidnapped on 03/02/07 on the way to Ramadi province

229. Husham Jasim Shawi Al-Kalmishi kidnapped by gunmen on 4/02/07 in Al-Doora, Baghdad Released on 8/02/07 after ransom was paid Husham is a religious leader assistance

230. Tahseen Satar Helal kidnapped by gunmen on 11/02/07 in Baghdad Al-gadeda district, Baghdad Released on 12/02/07 after ransom was paid

231. Dhafir Jasib Hathal kidnapped by gunmen on 11/02/07 in Baghdad Al-gadeda district, Baghdad Released on 12/02/07 after ransom was paid

232. Rana Hellael Al-Zuhairy (miss), University student kidnapped on 26/02/07 in Al-Sha’ab district, Baghdad when she went to collect her graduation degree, her where about are still unknown Rana’s father has been killed less than year ago

233. Sheikh Munther Leelo (religious leader) kidnapped by Al-Mahdi army; they has his hair cut and his beard shaved by force Then on 01/03/07 he was hit by explosive in Baghdad and had to undertake a major surgery as a result

234. Salwan Adel Abid Al-Sattar 17 yrs of age kidnapped by gunmen by force after attacking his house in Baghdad on 1/03/07 Released after paying $40000 and surrendering the family car to the negotiator

235. Saad Auda Zghair Al-Khamisi kidnapped on 8/03/07 in Al-Shurta district, Baghdad by gunmen taken him to unknown destination

236. Abdul Kareem Mutashar Sbahi Al-gaelani born on 01/07/1954, kidnapped on 10/03/07 after deported from Denmark on 29/12/06

237. Maged Sabri Bahidh Al-Furaegi kidnapped on 25/04/07 in Al-Khadraa, Baghdad, released on 27/04/07 after paying ransom The family received threat to leave the house or will be killed Maged is unemployed father of two

238. Humam Abid Al-Jabbar Abbod Dummad father of 3 kidnapped by gunmen from his house in Al-Doora district, Baghdad on 30/04/07 and tortured Released on 02/05/07 after ransom was paid The family left their house in fear of their life

239. Militant attack on Adel Abed Al-Sattar in Mechanics district, Baghdad kidnapping his 17 yrs old son by force and gun threat

240. Thaer Ibrahim Sabti Sahar kidnapped on 8/5/07 in Mechanic district, Baghdad

241. Feras Auoda Gurry a goldsmith born 1977 kidnapped on 17/05/07, lives in Al-sader district, Baghdad, his where about are still unknown

242. Munther Azzawi kidnapped on 17/05/07, lives in Al-sader district, Baghdad, his where about are still unknown

243. Ranya Atheer kidnapped in Mansoor district, Baghdad, released after paying $20000 ransom

244. Khalid Mura’z AlKhamisi kidnapped on 24/5/07 while going home from work at Al Shaab district, Baghdad

245. Rami Raheem Jaralla Manhoosh Al-Sabty kidnapped on 28/5/07 from Al-Hakemia district, Basra, Kidnappers asked for $60000 ransom, family has no such funding to release Rami. Cousin Wesam Jaralla Manhoosh Al-Sabty killed last February in Saidiai district, Baghdad.

246. Ihsan Jallawi born in 1981 kidnapped on 9/06/07 in Al- Eallam district, Baghdad

247. Muetaz Aziz Mageed Layeth kidnapped on 18/06/07 by militants in Al-Doora district, Baghdad. He was tortured and released on 20/06/07 after paying ransom and they threaten the family not to return to their house

248. Suhail Gani Al- Nashi kidnapped on June 2007 in Al-Mechanic district, Baghdad, his wareabout is still unknown

249. Fadhil Rasham kidnapped by gunmen on 9/7/07 in Al-Ameria district, Baghdad while going to work then released after paying ransom

250. 10 yrs old Ali Abdul Khalik Abdullah kidnapped on 24/7/07 by his house entrance, released after two days after paying $ 8000

251. Malik Aziz Al-Suhali kidnapped on 01/08/07, lives in Al-Saydia district, Baghdad, his where about are still unknown

252. Nibras Noori Sabti Sahar (Miss) kidnapped on 10/10/07 by militant on the way to the doctors and still missing Nibras born 1980 has Bsc degree in English and single

253. Emad Aziz Khasaf kidnapped on 24/10/07 by militant group after attacking his house in Saydia district, Baghdad and after steeling jewelleries and money. He was tortured badly then released after paying ransom and threatened not to return to his house or report incident to the authorities Emad was born 1960, have a Bsc digree and father of five

254. Tahseen Sattar Al-Zuhairy kidnapped on 12/12/07 in Baghdad Al-Gadeda district, Baghdad

255. Muhanad Lateef kidnapped on 27/12/07 in Al-Bayaa district, Baghdad then released after four days of paying ransom

Threats and Assaults

1. In different areas in Iraq (both Shiaa and Suni areas ) like Sadr City in Baghdad (Shiaa area), Falluja (Suni area) and Basra (mixed), during the Friday mosque sermon, extremist clerics have declared that it is religiously acceptable to attack and loot the property of the “infidels” as long as part of the loot is given for the “Islamic cause”.

2. May 2003: The arson of the alcohol brewery and looting of belongings of Salam Ajil Shahir’s in Baquba city.

3. May 7th 2003: The Mandaean community in Baghdad was terrified by the brutal attack on Mr. Mahir Sherad Zebala, his pregnant wife and their four children ages 10, 7, 4, and 2 in their house in Sidiah, Baghdad by thugs shouting religious slurs against the Mandaean religion.

4. The burning of a house and personal property in Hawijah, Kirkuk. This act of arson resulted in the murder of a handicapped 23-year-old Mandaean girl who was unable to flee the house.

5. April through June of 2003 saw the destruction of homes and businesses with explosives in Sowerah, Kut. The criminals who committed these bombing attacks were well-known Muslim extremists from the area. The following is a list of the victims:

5.1)Haitham Faiqe Al Othmani, April 20th 2003

5.2) Raad Mutar Falih Al Othmani, June 13th 2003

5.3) Ehsan Faiqe Al Othmani, June 15th 2003

5.4) Qaise Tua’mah Al Othmani, June 20th 2003

5.5) Abdullah Menkhi Al Chohaili, June 20th 2003

6. June 10th 2003, the houses of Fadhel Muhannawi Al Kuhaily and Kamil Gonfuth Al Kuhaili were damaged by two separate grenade attacks. The residents were and asked to move out of the area or be killed.

7. June 10th 2003, a bomb was detonated at the house of Halima Fadhel Gzar in Kadessia City. When the bomb failed to do the expected damage, machine gun fire riddled the house and destroyed it.

8. June 15th 2003, Sam Hannon Al Othmani was assaulted by gunshots in Sowerah.

9. June 26, 2003: Karim Askar Al Othmani was assaulted by mobs accusing him of practicing ‘Magic’ and was promptly murdered by gunshot in Sowerah.

10. Jabbar Muhattam suffered gunfire and destruction of the contents of his store. This act was committed by unknown person(s); the excuse given for the assault was ‘the selling of alcoholic drinks’.

11. July 2nd an armed assault with an attempt to murder was directed at both {Sheikh} Karim Selman Uraibi and his brother Talib for being Mandaean priests.

12. Six Mandaean jewellery stores were damaged by gunfire on a single night in Sadr City. The original intent was to kill the owners. The following statement was written on one of the six stores: “Your day is coming sub’ba!” Sub’ba (Subi) is a name used quite frequently by the local Muslims instead of the term Mandaean.

13. Attaching of leaflets in the jewelry shoing center of Al Jamhuria City in Basra in which the Mandaeans are accused of Magic and fornication, then threatened with severe punishment soon.

14. July 3rd, Yosif Beshir Gatea and Behjet Frhan Gatea were physically assaulted, and their jewelry store was looted in Habibia, Baghdad. The incident haened with the use of grenades and in front of crowds.

15. Mrs. Rafah Dawod Selman was assaulted; a payment of ransom was demanded. She was also threatened to be killed in case she does not move out.

16. July 7th 2003, Mr. Salam Sabri in Karada, Baghdad, was assaulted and robbed at gunpoint in front of witnesses. The act was combined with the use of ethnic and religious slurs.

17. Mrs Ibtisam A. Sabhan.(D.O.B) 1/7/1936) Had an assassination attempt on her life for refusing to give her daughter for marriage to a terrorist and refusing to pay a ransom. She was hit by a car in Baghdad 1/8/2004. Her son was killed in 2003 in Basra by extremists.

18. Mr. Basim Mohi’s son was kidnapped, Basrah. The kidnappers demanded a ransom. He was released with the help of the British forces. Soon after the boy was returned, the kidnappers terrorized the family again this time with messages that all “Sb’ba” (Mandaeans) would die. The family escaped the area.

19. Armed attack was perpetrated on Tarmetha Muthana Majeed Glas’s house on January 7th 2005. Glas is a Mandaean priest.

20. Armed attack was perpetrated on Salem Turfi Aziz’s house in Kirkuk on January 10th 2005. Aziz is the head of the Mandaean Community in Kirkuk.

21. Armed attack was perpetrated on Naseer Jasim Dhamin’s house on January 20th 2005. Dhamin was shot and badly injured.

22. Aseel Raad Fayadh was shot and badly injured on January 29th 2005 in Al-Saidyah.

23. Armed attack was perpetrated on Adel Dishar Zamil’s house in Kut on March 23rd 2005. Zamil is the head of the Mandaean Community in Wasit. A threat was written on the main door of the house stating, “You infidels, pay the tribute, or you will be killed.”

24. Engineer Akram Salman’s family was attacked by unknown persons on May 26th 2005. His wife, three months pregnant, was badly beaten and lost her unborn child. His son Sinan was kidnapped.

25. Rumi Rhaima’s house was attacked on June 10th 2005. His pregnant daughter-in-law Eman Kraidy Rhaima was badly beaten and lost her unborn child.

26. Adel Aziz Khisaf’s shop was robbed on June 13th 2005. He had refused to pay the Mujahideen (an extremist Islamic group). His shop was destroyed and his life threatened.

27. Khalid Akram Khalid was robbed and badly beaten on July 16th 2005 in Anbar province.

28. Fadhil Khalawi was robbed and badly beaten in Basra on July 24th 2005.

29. Jameel Jebr was robbed and badly beaten in Basra on July 24th 2005.

30. Dr. Hamed Baheth Kazar, Killing Threat, Dentist, 1-9-2005, Dura, Baghdad Threat’s Paper attached

31. Yahya Reyadh Hekmat, Shooting, Student, 20-8-2005, Al-Bayaa, Baghdad

32. Salman Helo Hekmat, killing threat, Goldsmith, 22-2-2005, Al-Bayaa, Baghdad

33. Emad Younis Sarhan, threat, TV. Director, 13-7-2005

34. Dr. Sarmad Haleem Barakat, Threat of killing, Surgeon, 4-4-2005 & 10-7-2005Al-Karkh Hospital, because he is Mandaean infidel.

35. Adel Ibraheem Adm, Killing Threat, Looting, Goldsmith,6-8-2005Baaqoba, Goldsmith market

36. Mohanad Naeem Ghleem, Threat, Goldsmith, 25-9-2005, Dura, Baghdad

37. Rabha Baaio Subeh, Threat, working at the Air Port, Al-Qadesia, Baghdad

38. Saad Amarah Amthael, Threat, Goldsmith, 3-5-2005,Baghdad Al-Thawra, Al-Kiarah, abandon his house because of the threat

39. Waseem Balasem Naeem, Threat, student, year 4 Medical college, October 2005 Al-Ramady

40. Salam Waeel Al-Mubarky, Threat, Goldsmith, 27-11-2005, Baghdad, Al-Shorta Shot at, while at his Shop

41. Khazaal Sabah Zemam Al-Zuhairy, Killing Threat, Goldsmith, 14-8-2005, Baghdad, Received a Threat paper

42. Marleen Reyadh Hekmat, Killing Threat, Employee In The Interir Ministry, 20-8-2005, Baghdad, Al-Bayaa

43. Saad Amarah Nafel, Threat, 5-8-2005, Baghdad, Al-Thawara

44. Adnan Jabar Helo, Threat, 2005, Baghdad, Brother of the Sect Chief

45. Dr. Zeiad Abdul-Kareem Al-Sayfi, Killing Threat, Dentist, 2005, Baghdad

46. Instructed to close his Clinic because he is Mandaean

47. Salah Yousif Naseem, Killing Threat, 30-9-2005, Baghdad, Dura, Shot at while he was home

48. Mejbel Jabar Helo, Attacked, Brother of the Sect Chief

49. Raed Zahron Shalash, Killing Threat, Goldsmith, 14-10-2004, Baghdad, Al-Bayaa, Received threats along with his Family

50. Satar Kredy Rahema, Threat, Pharmacist, 28-10-2004, Baghdad, Abu Desher Attacked and burn his Pharmacy

51. Al-Shieck Kherallah Zahron Meaarg, Attaking His Pharmacy, Religion Man 2004, Baghdad

52. Adel Talib Abdullah, Threat, Goldsmith, 7-11-2004, Baghdad, Abu Ghareeb

53. Zoher Raheem Dawwod, Threat Paper delivered, Goldsmith, 10-11-2004, Baghdad, Abu Ghareeb, Shot at while he was home

54. Sabah Mahdy Jelab, Threat, Goldsmith, Baghdad, Threat to leave his house, He left to save his life

55. Salam Zarzor Wady, Attacking His House, Goldsmith, 11-11-2004, Baghdad, Abu Ghareeb, Forced to leave the area where he lives

56. Zahron Khalaf Khayon, Threat, Goldsmith, 2004, Baghdad, Either to pay Ransom or change Religion

57. Satar Talib Nasir, Threat, Goldsmith, 2004, Baghdad

58. Waeel Salman Dawwod, Threat & Attacking, Goldsmith, November 2004, Baghdad, Abu Ghareeb

59. Zaki Mubark Masbob, Threat, Goldsmith, 8-9-2004, Baghdad, Abu Ghareeb

60. Fahmy Shanan Helo, Threat, Goldsmith, 2004, Baghdad

61. Majed Saad, Threat, Forcing to change his Religion, Goldsmith, 2004, Baghdad

62. Sabah Helo Bander, Threat and burgled his Shop, Goldsmith, 2004, Baghdad

63. Thamer Jabber Shamkhy, Threat, Goldsmith, 2004, Baghdad

64. Majed Naser Ayesh, Threat, Forcing him to Change his Religion, Goldsmith, 2004, Baghdad, Shop burgled

65. Salwan Hejan, Threat, Forcing him to Change his Religion, Goldsmith, 2004, Baghdad

66. Zahron Khalaf khayon, Killing Or Threat, Goldsmith, 2004, Baghdad

67. Threats against his Sons Ayad & Emad

68. Raad Jabar Helo, Threat, Goldsmith, 2004, Baghdad because he is the brother of the Sect Chief

69. Jameel Saad Helo, Threat, Goldsmith, 2004, Baghdad

70. Saleem Jyad Al-Msodny, Killing Threat, Goldsmith, 2004, Baghdad

71. Basher Mohsen Aouda, Attacking & Threat, Goldsmith, 2005, Baghdad

72. Anhar Nasir Lhd, Threat, 23-10-2004, Baghdad, Al-Bayaa Police Station

73. Afrah Sami Shamekh, Threat, 2004, Baghdad, Threat note passed to his house

74. Ayad L. Hassan, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

75. Azl Basim Abdul-Razak, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

76. Aram Essam Khalid, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

77. Usamah Ramzy Mubark, Threat, 2004, Baghdad, Shot at

78. Akram Haleem Hindy, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

79. Amal Aied Sajet, Threat, 2004, Baghdad, Threat to change his Religion

80. Adryan Oday Yousif, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

81. Ayad Jabar Khalf, Threat, 2004, Baghdad, Killing Threat

82. Basim Abdul-Razaq kased, Threat, 2004, Baghdad, Attacks on his house

83. Dr. Adel Lazim Meshaal Al-Khamesi, Attaking & Threat, University Lecturer, 8-12-2004, Baghdad, Al-Saidia

84. Basher Abdul Moneem,, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

85. Ban Malik Aziz, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

86. Ihab Jabar Khalaf, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

87. Taghreed L. Khalaf, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

88. Hamed Mejbel Hamad, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

89. Haleem Hindy Batty, Killing Threat, 2004, Basra, Reported to Al-Basra Police, he left Basra

90. Hazim Kamel Waste, Threat, 2004, Babylon, Left Babylon

91. Jalal Anees Amor, Threat, 1-11-2004, Baghdad, His Brother Layeth killed at Dyala Bridge

92. Jabber Shamkhy Jabber, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

93. Khalid Mejbel Jabar, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

94. Khalid Saad Salman, Threat, 2004, Baghdad, Threaten Paper passed to his house

95. Yousif Sajet Sahar, Threat, Baghdad

96. Zaki Mubark Jabber, Threat, Baghdad

97. Zoheer Raheem Dawood, Killing Threat, 10-11-2004, Baghdad, Abu-Ghareeb Police Station

98. Shaker Jawad Thamer, Attacking & Threat, Baghdad

99. Salah Bahjet Sharmoukh, Threat, Baghdad

100. Safaa Desher Zamil, Threat, 4-7-2004, Baghdad, Al-Bayaa Police Station

101. Raeed Zedan Manee, Threat, Baghdad

102. Rabha Abed Sahar, Threat, Baghdad

103. Raheem Zamil Rashed, Threat, Baghdad

104. Rafed Zedan Manee, Threat, Baghdad

105. Rafed Mjbel Hamd, Threat, Baghdad

106. Amjad Hamel Meshaal Al-Khamesi, Threat, 12-2004, Baghdad

107. Dhyaa Mubark Amarah, Threat, Baghdad

108. Ghania Jabar Karlos, Threat, Baghdad

109. Hesham Nasir Majeed, Threat, Baghdad

110. Haytham Abdul Kareem Khalaf, Threat, Baghdad

111. Ramzy Faeeq Khrebit, Threat, Baghdad

112. Rafid L. Hasan, Threat, Baghdad

113. Ramzya Al-Sabri, Threat, Baghdad

114. Raed M. Jabar, Threat, Baghdad

115. Raed Zahron Shalsh, Threat, 14-10-2004, Baghdad, Al-Bayaa Police Station

116. Saad Abdul-Ameer Kmeer, Killing Threat, Baghdad

117. Salman Saeed Abdul-Sada, Threat, Baghdad

118. Sam Essam Khalid, Threat, Baghdad

119. Sawsan Talib Abdul-Sada, Threat, Baghdad

120. Wael Hazim Meshaal, Threat, November 2005, Baghdad, Al-Mechanic

121. Faris Hamd Salman, Threat, Baghdad

122. Feras M. Fadhel, Threat, Baghdad

123. Salwan Jamil Hadher, Threat, 1-6-2004, Baghdad, his house was attacked by Al-Mahdy army

124. Kahtan Amer, Threat, 28-9-2005, Baghdad, reported at Al-Bayaa Police Station

125. Kamer W. Kmeer, Threat, Baghdad

126. Kareem Enessi zajy, Threat, 25-4-2005, Baghdad, killing threat, attempt to kidnap and robbery

127. Saadon Asaad Jabber, Threat, Baghdad

128. Souzan Aness Khamas, Threat, 25-10-2004, Baghdad, reported at Al-Karkh Police Station

129. Sundis Kerjy Yasin, Threat, 16-8-2005, Baghdad

130. Majeed Nasir Kaban, Threat, 2005, Basra, reported at Al-Zober Police Station

131. Mekhled Raheem Kashkol, Robbery & Threat, 28-7-2005, Baghdad reported at Al-Bayaa Police Station

132. Mahdy Sabah Helo, Kidnapping Threat, Baghdad and attempt of Circumcision by force

133. Majed Jamil Zebalah, Attacking, Baghdad

134. Mohmaed A. Kmar, kidnapping Threat, Baghdad

135. Mohammed Kabashy Shenan, kidnapping Threat, Baghdad

136. Mazin Abdul-Wahab, Attacking, Baghdad and arrested his Son

137. Abdul Satar Faris Al-Suhaily, kidnapping threat, 7-4-2005, Baghdad, reported at Al-Bayaa Police Station

138. Abeer Jasim Saad, robbery & Threat, Baghdad

139. Moaaid Saeed Jouda, Kidnapping Threat, Baghdad, Threat Paper passed to his house

140. Mejbil K. Sehiem, Attacking, Baghdad

141. Mushtak Fakhry Khalaf, Kidnapping Threat, Baghdad

142. Abady Neema, Threat, Baghdad

143. Abdul-Kareem Harbi Darweesh, Threat, Baghdad

144. Emad L. Hasan, threatened Because he was a witness to killing incident, Baghdad

145. Essam khalid Khalef threat, Baghdad

146. Adel Hekmat, Threat, Baghdad

147. Abdul Khaleq Shareef Nooman, Threat, Baghdad

148. Akeel Hayder Heliel, Threat, Baghdad

149. Abdul-Wahab Razoky Hamd, Threat, Baghdad

150. Abdul-Kareem Tawfeeq, Threat, Baghdad

151. Alaa Mubark Amarah, Threat, Baghdad

152. Oday Yousif Sajet, Threat, Baghdad

153. Laith Hady Jabek, Threat & Attacking, Baghdad, reported at Al-Rafdyen Police station

154. Laws Adwar Hasan, Threat, Baghdad

155. Lelo Al-Sabri, Threat, Baghdad

156. Nabeel Saad Sharad, Threat, Baghdad

157. Nasem Farhan Halob, Threat, Baghdad

158. Naghem Sami Flefel, Threat, Baghdad

159. Naser Shenan Helo, Threat, Baghdad

160. Nasser Mjbel Jabar, Threat, Baghdad

161. Wasfi Madlol Nooman, Threat, Baghdad

162. Wesam Majed Saeed, Threat, Baghdad

163. Wasfi Jabar Jary, Threat, 25-8-2005, Baghdad, reported at Al-Qudes Police station

164. Waleed Kamel Taieh, Threat, 10-7-2005, Baghdad, Balatt Al-Shohadaa

165. Basem Waham Kmer, Threat, 2004, Baghdad

166. Redsm Ibraheem Flefel, Threat, Baghdad

167. Fares Khalid Khalaf, Threat & Attacking, Baghdad

168. Jehad Bajay Sahar, Threat & Attacking, Al-Meqdadaih

169. Luay J. Aouda, Threat

170. Reyadh J. Aouda, Threat

171. Majeed Naser Kaban, Threat & Attacked

172. Hasan Raheem, Shot at, Al-Swera

173. Mushtaq Kredy Rahema, Threat either to be killed, pay Ransom or close his Shop down

174. Sundus Nasier Mshet, Attempt to kidnap Children because her husband refused to converted to Islam

175. Afrah Sami Shamekh, Threat either to pay Ransom or will be kidnapped

176. Essam Abdul-Lateef Jalel, Kidnapping threat

177. Adel Nasry Zarzor, Threat to bomb his house

178. Wesam Majed Saeed, Threat

179. Ban Malik Aziz, Threat

180. Ziad Saleem Hamady, Threat On 8-12-2005

181. Sabah Meedy Thamer, Threat

182. Nasir Shenan Helo, Threat

183. Abdul-Kareem Tawfeq, Threat

184. Feras Majid Fadhel, Threat

185. Akram Haleem Hendy, Threat

186. Luay Zahron Habeb, Threat

187. Saad Abdul-Raheem Kmaer, Threat

188. Usamah Hameed Zaki, Threat and Persecution

189. Laith Zaki Mouzan Al-Khamesi, Attempt to kill him by his front door On 27-8-2005

190. Ammar Raad Tarish Al-Saify, received threat on 25-03-2006 because he works for the Mandi and had to leave Iraq for safety.

191. Nadiq Abudul wahed Rumman, received threats by form of text all around the school he worked in. Haened in Saydia, Baghdad on 30-04-2006.

192. All Goldsmiths in Hay Al-Ammel, Baghdad received a printed threat on 12-05-2006, a copy of this threat is available.

193. Shekh Satar Jabar Hillo, the leader of Mandaeans handed a printed threat by hand in the Mandi on 24-05-2006

194. Many area of Baghdad received threat on 29-05-2006 demanding Mandaeans to leave the Country to the south of Iran, a copy of this threat is available

195. Khalida Salim Galhoom (Mrs) with four young children living in al-Doora, Baghdad who threatens on 30-05-2006 to be killed all if her children do not start praying in the Mosque. The family moved to hiding and then received help and left Iraq.

196. Ghazi Shaty Al-Khamisi, received threat on 19-06-2006 together with his father and children after attacking their house, burning their two cars and wounding his father all because they are Mandaeans.

197. Husam Leaaby Thamir, shot in the leg in attempt to kill him on July 06 in Al- Sadir City, Baghdad

198. Shekh Satar Jabar Hillo, the leader of Mandaeans and his brother attacked and threaten by gunmen at a gun point in Baghdad on 06-07-2006, tens of shot fired at his car, they were detained for more than 3 hours and were assaulted personally and his religion, then they took his mobile phone and all his I.D.

199. Ahmed Saeed Ghathban, threatened to leave work or be killed as he used to work for the Iraqi police force. Mr Ghathban has received threatening notes with 2 bullets on 12/07/2006. Mr Ghathban has currently changed his residential address as he is scared for his own life as well as for his family.

200. Rafed Shaker Saleh Al-Khamesi, Threat

201. Suaood Aziz Jabbar Al-Suhaili, Shot in the Leg on 03-08-2006

202. Family of Ghaiad Gadea, attack by 3 gun men on 03-09-2006 and attempt kidnapping of Ghaiad sister and her husband the religious leader Salam.

203. Few Mandaean’s shops in Baghdad, Hay Al- Ammel were attacked on 05-09-2006 with no casualties reported.

204. Yass Haleem Shaalan Al-Muhanawi, injured with his wife Jehan Saliem Abed Wadi in Mahmoodia as a result of attack by mortar attack on 10-09-2006

205. Basheer Khandeel Auofy Lafta Al-Zuhairi, injured with relative Salim Sabeeh Shafeek Lafta Al-Zuhairi in area called Suwaib by mortar attack on 17-10-2006, Shrapnel still in both bodies.

206. Dakhil Muhalhil Thamir Al-Othmani, seriously injured by exploded car in Al-Huria district, Baghdad on 18-10-2006, he lost one leg, an eye and one Ear.

207. Feras Saleem Mohy, goldsmith, Baghdad, looting his Money and his Jewellery

208. Salam Sabri, Burglary

209. Emad Raheem, threatened and Car stolen on 13-7-2004

210. Talib Kredy Rahma, his Shop burgled, taking all Contents

211. Kareem Mal Allah, burglary

212. Adam Al-Shiekh Khalaf, seizing his house, shooting at and stole his car, money and Jewellery

213. Meklaf Zahrawy, looting attempt and shot at by Gang

214. Hameed Zaky Silan, a Religion Man

215. Burglary against his House. He was forced to leave his house. They seized his house While he was in Jordan

216. Abed Wahwah Al-Nashee, retired teacher, Baghdad, threatened and attacked his house with hand Bomb which damage front of the house, so he fled to Jordan

217. Leaby Hasan Meejel, Baghdad Attacking his house on 8-5-2004 in Baghdad. They Invaded his house once again in Al-Faloja on 28-12-2004 So he force to escape from Iraq.

218. Abdul-Karim L. Hasan, Goldsmith, Baghdad Attacking his house On 8-5-2004, they threat and beaten his mother

219. Raed L. Hasan, a Goldsmith, his house has been attacked on 8-5-2004 in Baghdad, they threat and beaten his mother

220. Nadheer Khather, his house has been seized

221. Abdul-Kareem Darwesh, burglary stole his money and Jewellery on 3-4-2004

222. Tahsen Mezher Jebara, Goldsmith, Baghdad, invaded his house and stole his car on 2-6-2004

223. Jabar Aouda Sharif, Goldsmith, Basra, attacked and stole his Shop on 29-6-2002

224. Saeed Ghareb Sahi, invaded his house and burnt his car

225. Adel Haider Shibeeb, Goldsmith, Baladroose, looting all content of his shop by gunmen wearing police uniform on 27-5-2006

226. Ziad Saleem Hamady, Goldsmith, Basra, looting his Jewellery and threat him on 25-6-2005

227. Dr. Ziad Faraj Adam a Dentist, Baghdad, Al-Daura, 02-07-2006, Burning and destruction of all contents of the clinic which range from medical equipments and furniture as well as other contents.

228. Kamal Abd Wahwah, his Car, money and jewellery has been stolen and he was beaten, Baghdad

229. Nawras A. Habib (Miss) injured on 13/10/2006 as a result of attack to their house in Al-Rafedaen district, Baghdad

230. Mandaean’s families received a threat on 29/01/07 in Suwaira south of Baghdad

231. Dr. Adnan Ni’ma Hassoon Al-nashi family received threat in Ba’aquba province in a form of warning letter, they did not take it seriously then they attacked by gunmen, but manage to escape their house leaving to the north of Iraq

232. Dr. Adnan is a Vet; two of his sons are Pharmacist, a teacher, an Agricultural

233. engineer and a disabled son, three of them married with children, the family consist of:

234. Dr. Adnan Ni’ma Hassoon al-Nashi

235. Mrs. Ameera Abdul-razzaq Zamil Al-Jabiry

236. Ms. Fathila Ni’ma Hassoon Al-Nashi

237. Mr. Haithem Adnan Al-Nashi

238. Mrs.Shahad Fa’aiz Disher Zamil Al-Jabiry

239. Master Adam(Haithem son)

240. Mr. Irfan Adnan Al-Nashi

241. Mrs Zaghareed Khairy Abdul-razzaq Zamil Al-Jabur

242. Master Yousuf(Irfan’ s son)

243. Mr. Mushtaq Adnan Al-Nashi

244. Mrs. Suha Fa’aiz Disher Zamil Al-Jabiry

245. Miss. Rawan(Mushtaq’ s daughter)

246. Mr. Muhannad Adnan Al-Nashi

247. Mr. Usama Adnan Al-Nashi

248. Mukalad K. Saeed threatened on 10/4/07 in his residence in Baghdad to convert to Islam or leave the country then on 20/4 he arrested and taken to Husainea (place of Islamic worship) where he was assaulted and beaten hard for not taken threat seriously and have been told to obey to their demands or bear the consequences

249. After the killing of Yahya Abadi Al-Uthmani on 4/05/07 in Nasiriya province and while his family and the Mandaean’s community were busy and moaning at funeral they received a letter of threat on 12/05/07 giving them 72 hours to leave the city or else!

250. Few Mandaeans families received threats in Al-Doora, Baghdad and had to evict their houses:

251. Jameel Tawfeek

252. Saad Shakheir

253. Saad Jameel

254. Tawfeek Saad

255. Jaleel Zahroon

256. Najat Azeez Shadhar (Miss) received threat in a form of warning letter on 1/9/07 to convert to Islam within a week or face serious consequences

257. Feras Tarik Barakat Roomi received threat to leave his job as engineer for Electricity board

Rape

Names will be held for confidentiality. These cases represent the cases that were reported to us. Lots of other cases go unreported. Most women interviewed by UNHCR who were kidnapped had also been raped and otherwise ill-treated by their captors [34].

1. SH. H. N. H, 20 yrs old University student, 2004, Baghdad Left Iraq

2. S.H.L, House Wife, 7-4-2005, Baghdad Left Iraq

3. S. S.S. 38 yrs old House Wife, 26-7-2005, Baghdad Left Iraq

4. F.F.N 40 yrs old House Wife, 8-12-2004, Baghdad Left Iraq

5. R.M.E 28 yrs old worker In Parker Shop, April 2005, Baghdad Left Iraq

6. A.F.N, house wife, attacked & raped on 21-6-2005, Baghdad Left Iraq

7. H.GH. N. 42 yrs old house wife raped & kidnapped on 20-6-2004, Baghdad Left Iraq

8. E.B.AA., kidnapped & raped on 25-12-2004, Baghdad, reported to Al-Yarmouk Police Station. Released after paying ransom of $10000.00

9. DH.E.H 34 yrs old house wife raped & kidnapped on 4-9-2005, Baghdad Left Iraq

10. D.F. a pregnant house wife kidnapped & raped on18-9-2005, Baghdad, reported to Al-Bayaa Police Station. Released after paying ransom In Sowerah,

11. S. A. A. survived an attempt of rape.

Conversion to Islam by Force

1. Shroq Farhan Katee, Al-Falluja beside her Sons: Sanaa Tahseen, Salwan Tahsen & Hanin Tahseen

2. Feryal Farhan Katee, Al-Falluja beside her Sons and Daughter

3. Senan Yasin, Al-Falluja beside his Sons and Daughter

4. Sarah Sabeh Sabri, Al-Falluja

5. Salah Najy Shather, Baghdad

6. Naseema Aoda, Baghdad

7. Fouad Farhan, Al-Falluja

8. Adel Farhan, Al-Falluja

9. Ashraf Farhan Katee, Al-Falluja

10. Hasan Fazwzy, Al-Falluja

11. Senan Hasan, Al-Falluja

12. Sawsan Hasan, Al-Falluja

13. Falah Sabri, Al-Falluja

14. Ikhlas Farhan, Al-Falluja

15. Salah Sabri, Al-Falluja

16. Asaad Sabri, Al-Falluja

17. Yezen Sabri, Al-Falluja

18. Satota Fenjan, Al-Falluja

19. Nedhal Ashor, Al-Falluja

20. May Ashor, Al-Falluja, beside her Daughters Noor, Mony & Meshmash

21. Hayat Zamil Sadeq, Baghdad

22. Nawal zaki Alwan, Baghdad

23. Suha Shnawa edan, Baghdad

24. Nuha Shnawa edan, Baghdad

25. Maha Shnawa edan, Baghdad

26. Abd alghani Mankhi Flifl, Amman

27. Suaad Nori Mthni, Amman

28. 35 families were forced to convert to Islam in Al-Falluja. Had the Mandaeans not complied they would have been forced out of Al-Falluja, leaving their children and belongings behind.

29. -(name removed for safety)–received threats to convert to Islam or be harmed by her Muslims acquaintances.

30. Members of (name removed for safety) family and others who had witnessed his death were threatened with their own deaths if they did not convert to Islam.

31. (name removed for safety) was threatened to convert to Islam or be kidnapped and then he was kidnapped on March 20th 2005. His whereabouts are still unknown up to the preparation of this report.

32. (name removed for safety) was threatened to be killed along with her daughter (7 years) if she did not convert to Islam. This action forced the woman to escape with her daughter out of the area. This haened in Sader City, and sector 31, Baghdad.

33. A letter signed by The Islamic Mujahideen Group and distributed to Mandaean houses and businesses in March, 2005, demanded that all Mandaeans should either convert to Islam, leave the country or be killed by the sword.

Forceful Displacement from Al-Ramady Area to Syria

1. Jouda Zeghier Khafour, Goldsmith

2. Kareem Jouda Zeghier Khafor Al-Khamesi

3. Fares Jouda Zeghier Khafor Al-Khamesi

4. Hamed Jouda Zegier Khafour Al-Khamesi

5. Sami Naeem Ghafel Al-Khamesi, a Goldsmith

6. Essam Sami Naeem Ghafel Al-Khamesi

7. Husam Sami Naeem Ghafil Al-Khamesi

8. Hesham Sami Naeem Ghafil Al-Khamesi

9. Wesam Sami Naeem Ghafel Al-Khamesi

10. Zeida Khalid Mohy Al-Khamesi, a Goldsmith

11. Khaldon Zeiad Khalid Mohy Al-Khamesi

12. Sarmad Zeiad Khalid Mohy Al-Khamesi

13. Anwar Zeiad Khalid Mohy Al-Khamesi

14. Raheem Flefel Fahad Al-Kuhily, Goldsmith

15. Fouad Raheem Flefel Fahad Al-Kuhily

16. Zeiad Raheem Flefl Fahad Al-Kuhily

17. Nehad Raheem Flefl Fahad Al-Kuhily

18. Sabah Abbas Jabber Al-Khamesi

19. Najy Abbas Jabber Al-Khamesi, a Goldsmith

20. Ather Abbas Jabber Al-Khamesi

21. Asaad Aziz Dher Al-Msodany

22. Salman Aziz Dher Al-Msodnay

23. Saleem Hajol Saeed Al-Kuhily, a Goldsmith

24. Luay Saleem Hajol Saeed Al-Kuhily

25. Thaer Jaaz Mhaws Al-Kuhily

26. Alla Atee Shabeb Al-Khamesi

27. Salah Atee Shabeb Al-Khamesi

28. Mohand Wessam Sami Naeem Al-Khamesi

Forceful Displacement from Al-Ramady Area to Jordan

1. Moneem Salih Mohy Kazar Al-Khamesi, Goldsmith

2. Nezar Moneem Salih Mohy Kazar Al-Khamesi

3. Shaker Salih Mohy Kazar Al-Khamesi, Goldsmith

4. Mahmoud Shaker Salih Mohy Kazar Al-Khamesi

5. Laith Shaker Salih Mohy Kazar Al-Khamesi

6. Muneer Salih Mohy Kazar Al-Khamesi

7. Atheer Salih Mohy Kazar Al-Khamesi

8. Ahmad Saeed Salih Mohy Kazar Al-Khamesi

9. Luay Salih Mohy Kazar Al-Khamesi

10. Thaer Tareq Khalid Mohy Al-Khamesi

11. Mahir Tareq Khalid Mohy Al-Khamesi

12. Khalid Akram Khalid Mohy Al-Khamesi

13. Karm Akram Khalid Mohy Al-Khamesi

Other incidents

1. On 11/01/07 Hayfaa Jabbar (Miss) survived kidnapping attempt because she was not wearing Hejab, manage to escape, but shot in the head by member of kidnapping militant which led to loosing right eye and loosing eyesight to left eye

2. On 26/01/07 Sheikh Haytham Saleem Shaher survive assassination attempt because he was a religious leader by attacking and destroying his house in Saidiya, Baghdad

3. Aziz Khassaf Al-Mandawi injured in explosion on 4/2/07 in Bayaa district, Baghdad

4. Munther Abid Rabba injured in car explosion in Al-Mutanabi Street Baghdad on March 07

5. Jehad Bakkal Khangar injured by mortar attack on his flat on18/03/07 in Al- Yarmook district, Baghdad

6. Family of late Riyadh Muhatam Al-Sheigh Yahya suffered damages to their house in Al- Mowasalat district, Baghdad by mortar attack on 28/03/07

7. Kareem Nagi Maruood family forced to leave and abandon their house on 3/04/07 in Al-Doora district, Baghdad and moved to another area for safety

8. Adnan Musa Shiltagh suffered head injures and taken to hospital due to car explosion in Al-Karrada district Baghdad on 18/04/07 further to plenty of damages to his shop

9. Emad Shenshal Zagy suffered a gun shot injuries and a lot of damages to his car on 21/04/07 by the Mandi in Qadisiya district, Baghdad

10. Daylona Auoda Rumaidh (Mrs) injured in two cars explosions on 22/04/07 in Al- Ea’lam district, Baghdad

11. Dr. Ibrahim Khamas Duma’d house and annex has been occupied by force on 25/04/07 in Al-Khadraa district, Baghdad and forced to sign a tenancy agreement under gun threat after kidnapping his son in law Maged Sabri Bahidh. The family evacuated from their house and told by gun men to announce that they are leaving the country to live abroad and threatened to be killed if tell anybody about their ordeal. The family had to leave all furniture and belongs behind

12. Naba’a Ziyad Zaki a child born 2001 and Sister Saba’a born 2002 both injured by mortar attack in Harithiya district, Baghdad on 26/04/07

13. Yahya Jalal Aziz Khassaf a child shot in the hand in Al-Saidia district, Baghdad on 1/05/07

14. Rasheed Noori Jaber house burned by two mortar attacks on 1/05/07 causing sever damages making the house unfit and unsafe to live in, which force the family to move out.

15. Karim Abdullah Salman Musudni shot in the mouth on 11/6/2007 in Al-Aalmel district, Baghdad

16. On 02/06/07 gun men attacked residence of Sheikh Haitham Saleem Shahir at 2:00 pm exploding main door looting contents and belong and steeling car

17. Mandaeans worship place (Mandi) in Meysan province has received attack by shot gun while carrying out Baptism ceremony on Sunday 15/7/07 in which Nedham Krady injured together with another Mandaean worshiper

18. Kamil Aufy Mashkoor and 6 member of his family has been evicted by force from their home in Al-Doora district, Baghdad

19. Emad Matrood Sareea and family has been evicted from their home in Al-Doora district, Baghdad

20. Saeed Gahreeb Saahi and family has been evicted by force from their home in Al-Doora district, Baghdad beside two shops one car mechanics and the other is vehicles accessories

21. Mortar landed on residence of Faheem Salim Sarhan Al- Khamisi in Al-Bayaa district, Baghdad

Photo evidence of some of the victims

Al-Halali Raad Matar Falih Al-Othmani, killed on 10-10-2006, Al-Suwara, South of Baghdad, Killed because he was practicing to be a religious leader.

Al-Halali Raad Matar Falih Al-OthmaniAl-Halali Raad Matar Falih Al-Othmani

Mr Khalid Akram Muhi 30 yrs, Kidnapped, tortured, given three days to announce his conversion to Islam or leave the country.

Mr Khalid Akram Muhi

Dr . Nisreen Abdul-lateef, Dentist, Married with two kids. Attacked on august 8th 2006 by masked gun men in her clinic shouting slogans against the infidels. Kicked and beaten then put to the floor to be slaughtered. She was saved by her patients.

Dr . Nisreen Abdul-lateefDr . Nisreen Abdul-lateef

Mr. Khayri Abdul-Sattar, Jeweller, killed in his shop after he got two letters of threats to leave the area or convert . Killed on April 2nd 2005.

Mr. Khayri Abdul-Sattar

Mr. Zamil Al-Zuhairi, 56 yrs Jeweller. Kidnapped May 8th 2005., Tortured, refused to change religion. He paid ransom. Now suffers sever psychological trauma and living in Syria.

Mr. Zamil Al-Zuhairi Mr. Zamil Al-Zuhairi Mr. Zamil Al-Zuhairi

Salwan Salam, Child 10 years old. In Dyala area, kidnapped, beaten then burned on different areas of his body. Family paid ransom and left Iraq.

Salwan Salam

Rwan Mukdad Kareem Al-Khamisi, 5yrs old kidnapped March 13th 2004, a piece of her ear was sent to the parents to pay ransom and leave the area. Parents paid $10,000.00 and left Iraq.

Rwan Mukdad Kareem Al-Khamisi

Aseel Dhafer 12 years Kidnapped on September 28 2004 . Kiddnapped, tortured . The kidnappers asked the parents to convert, pay ransom and leave the country. Family paid $15000.00 and left Iraq.

Aseel DhaferAseel DhaferAseel Dhafer

Miss Hifa Jabar Mijman

She lost one eye in an attack by thugs. She was attacked because she did not put on a hijab and refused to obey their orders.

Miss Hifa  Jabar Mijman

Mr Imad Aziz Khisaf

Torture victim. Was Kidnapped tortured and paid ransom before he could escape to Syria.

Mr Imad Aziz Khisaf Mr Imad Aziz Khisaf

References

[1] Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran By Lady Drowere, E. S., P 56-57

[2] Jean de Morgan (mission scientifique en Perse ) volume 5

[3] Glimpses of Life: Yahia Bihram Mandaean Priest by Jorunn J. Buckley-

(History of Religions 1999 pgs 32 – 49)]

[4] Same as above]

[5] Stories from a life of Ameer by Mahmooh Hamidi (Persian ) P 161

[6] Drower, E. S., The Thousand and Twelve Questions (Alf Trisar Suialia), edited in transliteration and translation by E. S. Drower (Akademie Verlag Berlin: 1960] ([ Pages 1-2)

[7] Drower, E. S., The Thousand and Twelve Questions (Alf Trisar Suialia), edited in transliteration and translation by E. S. Drower (Akademie Verlag Berlin: 1960 Page 2)

[8] List of names can be obtained from the Mandaean Human Rights Group directly (secretary@mandaeanunion.org)

[9] International Religious Freedom Report 2003 Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor

[10] A comprehensive report about that period has been issued by the Mandaean Human Rights Group and can be requested directly from the group PP PP(secretary@mandaeanunion.org)

[11] Sabian Mandaeans in Iraq Face Annihilation http://mandaeanunion.org/HMRG/Sabian%20Mandaeans%20in%20Iraq%20Face%20Annihilation_2007%20MHRG%20report.pdf

[12] Iraq Study group report http://www.usip.org/isg/ P 6-10

[13] UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI), Human Rights Report,1 appril-30june 2007 http://www.uniraq.org/FileLib/misc/HR%20Report%20Apr%20Jun%202007%20EN.pdf

[14] In a Recent incidents include the disappearance of a Mandaean engineer after being stopped by armed militia on the road to an Escanderia factory near Baghdad. Another occurred on the road to Ramadi: insurgents stopped a car and killed the driver, a Shia passenger, and a Mandaean father and his child . Direct contact

[15] Http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/news/view/-/id/373/

[16] http://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/docs/resources/submissions/2008-09_intakesub.pdf P 81

[17] http://www.amnesty.org.uk/news_details.asp?NewsID=17360

[18] (UUUNAMI ( UN Assistance Mission for Iraq) Human Rights Report 30th June 2007) http://www.uniraq.org/FileLib/misc/HR%20Report%20Apr%20Jun%202007%20EN.pdf

[19] Home Office U.K report Country Of Origin 2007 page 134, 21.67

[20] http://www.uscirf.gov/mediaroom/press/2007/may/20070502annualreport.html

[21] UK home office report COI. 30PPthPP of April 2007 on page 135, 21.70

[22] Human Rights Watch Report 2008 http://hrw.org/englishwr2k8/docs/2008/01/31/iraq17598.htm

[23] http://www.amnestyusa.org/annualreport/

[24] TTUUhttp://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs08/iraq-250108.doc#Sab 21.82 p. 158

[25] ECRE report , 2PPndPP April 2007 http://www.ecre.org/files/ECRE%20Iraq%20Guidelines%20April%202007.pdf P 19

[26] Iraq Study group report http://www.usip.org/isg/ P14

[27] Iraq Study group report http://www.usip.org/isg/ P 13

[28] Human Rights Watch “The Silent Treatment” Fleeing Iraq, Surviving in Jordan Http://www.hrw.org/reports/2006/jordan1106/

[29] http://www.unhcr.org/news/NEWS/478395d94.html

[30] www.minorityrights.org/download.php?id=119TT

[31] http://www.genocidewatch.org/news/IraqGenocideWatchMandaeansofIraq.htm

[32] Iraq Study group report http://www.usip.org/isg/ P 9

[33] USCIRF Letter to Under Secretary of State, Nov 9 2006 http://uscirf.gov/mediaroom/press/2006/november/20061109IraqRefugees.html

[34] The Guidelines Relating to the Eligibility of Iraqi Asylum-Seekers October 2005 issued by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home/opendoc.pdf?tbl=RSDLEGAL&id=4354e3594